文章摘要
李  静 1 ,何时雨 1 ,刘世伟 2,林希昊1 ,郑永清 1 ,刘  青.木薯叶化感作用对土壤养分、酶活性的影响研究[J].广东农业科学,2019,46(3):11-16
木薯叶化感作用对土壤养分、酶活性的影响研究
Study on the Effect of Cassava Leaf Allelopathy on Soil Nutrient and Enzyme Activity
  
DOI:10.16768/j.issn.1004-874X.2019.03.002
中文关键词: 化感作用  土壤  木薯  生态系统  杂草控制
英文关键词: allelopathy  soil  cassava  ecosystem  weed control
基金项目:广州市科技计划项目(201607010287);中国热带农业科学院院本级基本科研业务费专项 (160032015010);海南省自然科学基金(317224)
作者单位
李  静 1 ,何时雨 1 ,刘世伟 2,林希昊1 ,郑永清 1 ,刘  青 1. 中国热带农业科学院广州实验站广东 广州 510140 2. 华南农业大学资源环境学院广东 广州 510642 
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中文摘要:
      【目的】研究木薯叶化感作用对木薯根际土壤养分、酶活性的影响。【方法】采用大田试验,以 食用木薯品种华南 9 号为试验品种,设置不同浓度木薯叶浸提液,在不同处理期比较分析木薯根际土壤养分、 酶活性大小。【结果】木薯叶化感作用对 pH 影响不大;有机质含量受处理时间影响不大,但随处理浓度的增 高呈现先升高后降低的趋势,最高值时处理浓度为 0.05 g/mL,有机质含量在处理 1、2、4 个月分别为 41.14、 52.20、36.22 g/kg;土壤碱解氮、有效磷表现出与有机质相似的趋势,都是随处理浓度的增高呈现先升高后降低 的趋势,最高值时处理浓度为 0.05 g/mL,处理 1、2、4 个月其含量分别为 143.21、204.83、127.88 mg/kg(碱解 氮)和 229.03、316.40、235.99 mg/kg(有效磷);有效钾含量处理 1 个月最高值出现在 0.1 g/mL 浓度,为 675.16 mg/kg,处理 2 个月和 4 个月最高值出现在 0.05 g/mL 浓度,分别为 819.35、665.38 mg/kg。化感作用会整体提高土 壤酶活性,脲酶活性最高出现在 0.1 g/mL 浓度,处理 1、2、4 个月脲酶 NH4 +-N 活性分别为 467、503、408 mg/kg; 土壤酸性磷酸酶 P2O5 活性和土壤过氧化氢酶(KMn04 滴定法)活性最高出现在 0.05 g/mL 浓度,处理 1、2、4 个月 其活性分别为 106、 143、134 mg/kg(土壤酸性磷酸酶)和 6.53、6.71、5.24 mg/kg(土壤过氧化氢酶)。【结论】 木薯叶化感作用对土壤养分及酶活性都具有影响,可以进一步利用其作为园区杂草控制的措施。
英文摘要:
      【Objective】 The experiment was conducted to explore the effect of cassava leaf allelopathy on nutrients and enzyme activities in the rhizosphere soil of cassava. 【Method】The field experiment was designed by using edible cassava variety“SC9” as tested variety and treating cassava leaf extracts with different concentration to explore the nutrients and enzyme activities of cassava rhizosphere soil in different treatment periods. 【Result】The cassava leaf allelopathy showed little effect on pH larger. The organic matter content was hardly affected by treatment time. However, it increased first and then decreased with the increase of treatment concentration and reached the highest value when the treatment concentration was 0.05 g/mL, with the organic matter contents of 41.14 g/kg (one month treatment), 52.20 g/kg (two month treatment) and 36.22 g/kg (four month treatment), respectively. Soil available nitrogen and available phosphorus content showed a similar trend with organic matter content. The available nitrogen content reached the highest value when the treatment concentration was 0.05 g/mL, with the contents of 143.21 mg/kg (one month treatment), 204.83 mg/ kg(two months treatment) and 127.88 mg/kg (four months treatment) , respectively. The available phosphorus content got the highest value when the treatment concentration was 0.05 g/mL, with the contents of 229.03 mg/kg (one month treatment), 316.40 mg/kg (two months treatment) and 235.99 mg/kg (four months treatment), respectively. The highest effective potassium content was 675.16 mg/kg (one month treatment) when treated at the concentration of 0.1 g/mL, while its highest contents were 819.35 mg/kg (two months treatment) and 665.38 mg/kg (four months treatment) respectively when treated at the concentration of 0.05 g/mL. Generally, allelopathy could increase soil enzyme activities. The highest urease activity was obtained at the treatment concentration of 0.1 g/mL, and the urease NH4 +-N were 467 mg/kg (one month treatment), 503 mg/kg (two months treatment) and 408 mg/kg (four months treatment), respectively. The activities of soil acid phosphatase P2O5 and catalase reached the highest at the concentration of 0.05 g/mL. The acid phosphatase activities were 106 mg/kg (one month treatment), 143 mg/kg (two months treatment) and 134 mg/kg (four months treatment), respectively. The activities of catalase were 6.53 mg/kg (one month treatment), 6.71 mg/kg (two months treatment) and 5.24 mg/kg (four months treatment), respectively. 【Conclusion】 The cassava leaf allelopathy had effect on the soil nutrition and the enzyme activities, and allelopathy could be used as a measure for weed control in the cassava field.
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