文章摘要
代啟贵 1 ,张  帆 1 ,徐鹏举 2,曹先维 3,张新明.冬作马铃薯商品有机肥适宜用量研究[J].广东农业科学,2019,46(3):57-63
冬作马铃薯商品有机肥适宜用量研究
Study on Suitable Amount of Commercial Organic Fertilizer for Winter-cropping Potato Production
  
DOI:10.16768/j.issn.1004-874X.2019.03.009
中文关键词: 冬作马铃薯  商品有机肥  块茎产量  块茎品质  矿质营养特性
英文关键词: winter potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)  commercial organic fertilizer  tuber yield  tuber quality  mineral nutrition characteristics
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFD0200801);国家马铃薯产业技术体系广州综合试验站团队项目 (CARS-09-ES18)
作者单位
代啟贵 1 ,张  帆 1 ,徐鹏举 2,曹先维 3,张新明 1. 华南农业大学资源环境学院广东 广州 5106422. 惠东县农业技术推广中心广东 惠东 516300 3. 华南农业大学园艺学院广东 广州 510642 
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中文摘要:
      【目的】确定冬作马铃薯商品有机肥的适宜用量,为广东省冬作马铃薯生产过程中商品有机 肥的合理施用提供技术支撑。【方法】以不施肥和不施有机肥为对照,设 5 个有机肥用量处理(处理 1~5∶ 3 000 ~ 150 00 kg/hm2),并在收获时测定块茎产量、经济效益和块茎的品质参数等。【结果】 马铃薯产量随 有机肥用量的增加而呈递增的趋势,处理 5(15 000 kg/hm2)产量最高达 40 871 kg/hm2;各处理干物质率的范围 为 18.63%~ 20.05%;处理 3(9 000 kg/hm2)综合经济效益最高达 75 318.75 元 /hm2,对经济效益与商品有机肥 用量通过一元二次函数方程拟合,得到经济效益最大时商品有机肥的施用量为 9 077.23 kg/hm2,此时经济效益为 74 872.31 元 /hm2,方程拟合与实际生产情况相吻合;在品质方面,不同处理块茎干物质率、鲜薯 Vc 含量和淀 粉含量之间没有显著差异;每 100 kg 商品有机肥增产量也是以处理 3 最高,达到 47.56 kg。【结论】在供试条件下, 适宜于冬作马铃薯高产高效的“1 基 0 追”施肥模式为施用马铃薯专用肥 1 500 kg/hm2+ 商品有机肥 9 000 kg/hm2。
英文摘要:
      【Objective】This study aimed at determining the appropriate amount of commercial organic fertilizer for winter potato production in order to provide technical support for the rational application of commercial organic fertilizers in the actual production process of winter potato in Guangdong Province.【Methods】With CK(no fertilizer application) and CF(only chemical fertilizer without commercial fertilizer application) as the control treatments, five different amounts of commercial organic fertilizers (Treatment 1-5∶3000 to 15 000 kg/hm2 ) were designed, and the tuber yield, economic benefits, and tuber quality parameters were measured at harvest time.【Results】The tuber yields of winter potato increased with the increment of the amount of commercial organic fertilizer, and the yield of Treatment 5(15 000kg/hm2) was up to 40 871 kg/hm2(maximum yield). The dry matter rate of each treatment ranged from 18.63% to 20.05%. The comprehensive economic benefits of Treatment 3 (9 000 kg/hm2) was up to 75 318.75 yuan/hm2. By using quadratic equation to simulate the regression relationship between the economic benefits and the application amount of commercial organic fertilizer, it was found that when the application amount of commercial organic fertilizer was 9 077.23 kg/hm2, the economic benefit was maximum, reaching 74 872.31 yuan/hm2, and the equation simulation was consistent with the actual production situation in the field experiment. In terms of the tuber quality, There was no significant difference with dry matter rate, Vc content of fresh potatos and starch content of tubers with different treatments. The increased yield per 100 kg of commercial organic fertilizer was also the highest in Treatment 3, reaching 47.56 kg.【Conclusion】Under the test conditions, the optimal fertilization pattern with“1 base manure+0 top dressing”for winter-cropping potatoes is 1 500 kg/hm2 of potato special fertilizer plus 9 000 kg/hm2 of commercial organic fertilizer in winter potato production.
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