文章摘要
杨旭燕 1 ,何文寿 1 ,何  玲 2.油菜基追氮肥比例研究[J].广东农业科学,2019,46(3):64-70
油菜基追氮肥比例研究
Study on the Basal/Topdressing Ratio of Nitrogen Fertilizer for Rapeseed
  
DOI:10.16768/j.issn.1004-874X.2019.03.011
中文关键词: 油菜  生物产量  生长量  基追氮肥比例
英文关键词: rapeseed  biomass  growth  basal/topdressing ratio of nitrogen fertilizer
基金项目:宁夏回族自治区科技计划项目(2018BBF02003);国家公益性行业(农业)科研专项经费(201503120)
作者单位
杨旭燕 1 ,何文寿 1 ,何  玲 2 1. 宁夏大学农学院宁夏 银川 7500002. 宁夏回族自治区农村科技发展中心宁夏 银川 750002 
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中文摘要:
      【目的】探讨适宜宁夏引黄灌区主要油菜品种的最佳追肥期。【方法】采用随机区组试验设计, 研究华油杂 62 号品种生育期的生长量变化以及植株不同部位的氮、磷、钾含量变化对油菜产量的影响。【结果】 基施氮肥 60%、苗期追施氮肥 40% 的油菜产量最高,每 667 m2 产量达到 4 889.1 kg;在整个生育期,油菜株高 增长呈曲线增长态势;叶绿素含量在生长发育期前期快速增长,60 d 时叶绿素含量达到最高。随着生育进程的 推进,氮含量逐渐减小,根部前期降低趋势较大,后期缓慢降低;叶部前期降低趋势缓慢,后期缓慢增加;茎 部前期降低趋势缓慢后期增大。根部磷含量变化趋势一直缓慢下降;茎部前期上升趋势比较大,45 d 后缓慢升高; 叶部前期缓慢降低,整个生育期升高的趋势都不明显。钾含量先降低再缓慢升高,收获后期降低,但是降幅不大。 饲料油菜全氮含量均呈现先增高后降低的趋势,全氮含量在 4.10%~5.46% 范围内变化;全磷含量均呈现先增加 后降低再增加再降低的趋势;全钾含量均呈现先增加后降低的趋势,各处理在 40 d 左右植株全钾含量达到最高 值,分别为 4.02%、4.22%、4.39%。【结论】宁夏引黄灌区华油杂 62 号品种宜选择在苗期追肥,且以基施氮肥 60%、苗期追施氮肥 40% 效果最好。
英文摘要:
      【Objective】The objective of the study was to explore the best topdressing period of main rapeseed varieties that suitable for Yellow River Irrigation District of Ningxia. 【Method】The randomized block experiment was designed to study the change of growth of the variety“Huayouza 62” and the effects of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents in different parts of the plant on the yield of rapeseed. 【Result】 The highest yield of rapeseed was obtained when applying 60% of basal nitrogen fertilizer and 40% of topdressing nitrogen fertilizer in the seedling stage, with the yield reaching 4 889.1 kg per 667 m2. The plant height of rapeseed increased in a curve during the whole growth period. The chlorophyll content increased rapidly in the early growth stage and the chlorophyll content reached the highest at 60 days. With the advancement of the fertility process, the N content gradually decreased, the roots decreased in the early stage, and decreased slowly in the late stage; the leaves decreased slowly in the early stage and increased gradually in the late stage; the stems decreased slowly in the early stage and rapidly in the late stage. The change of P content of the roots has been decreasing slowly; the growth of stems showed a relatively great upward trend, and it increased slowly after 45 days; the leaves decreased slowly in the early stage, and showed little increase during the whole growth period. The K content decreased first and then increased slowly, but decreased in late harvest stage, with slight decrease. The total nitrogen(TN) content of rapeseed increased first and then decreased. The TN content varied from 4.10% to 5.46% and the highest nitrogen accumulation amount in treatment 2 was 0.78 g/plant. The total phosphorus(TP) content increased first and then decreased. Then the TP content increased and decreased again. The total potassium(TK) content increased first and then decreased, and the highest TK contents of the three treatments were obtained at about 40 days, with the highest contents of 4.02%, 4.22% and 4.39%, respectively. 【Conclusion】 The variety“Huayouza 62”of Yellow River Irrigation District of Ningxia should be selected for topdressing at seedling stage, and the effect was best when applying 60% of basal nitrogen fertilizer and 40% of topdressing nitrogen fertilizer in the seedling stage .
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