文章摘要
蔡 伟 1 ,严卓晟 2,William Jia Lan3,彭 彬 4,钟坚文 2,张 杰 2,胡琼波 1.超声波处理对稻谷表面微生物的影响[J].广东农业科学,2019,46(5):99-106
超声波处理对稻谷表面微生物的影响
Effect of Ultrasonic Wave on Microorganisms on the Surfaces of Rice Seeds
  
DOI:10.16768/j.issn.1004-874X.2019.05.014
中文关键词: 水稻  超声波  细菌  真菌  杀菌
英文关键词: rice  ultrasonic wave  bacteria  fungi  antimicrobial
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作者单位
蔡 伟 1 ,严卓晟 2,William Jia Lan3,彭 彬 4,钟坚文 2,张 杰 2,胡琼波 1 1. 华南农业大学农学院广东 广州 5106422. 广州市金稻农业科技有限公司广东 广州 510075 3. 上海交通大学法学院上海 2002404. 广东省农业机械化技术推广总站广东 广州 510500 
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中文摘要:
      【目的】考察超声波处理对种谷表面真菌与细菌的影响,比较不同处理方式的杀菌效果,分析 影响超声波杀菌作用的因素以及超声波促进稻谷萌发与壮秧的原因。【方法】以水稻品种象牙香占的种谷为 材料,设 25~50 kHz 变频超声波湿法(Twet),50 kHz 超声波干法(Tdry1)和 25 kHz 超声波干法(Tdry2)3 个处 理,以常规湿法(CK1)与干法(CK2)为对照,3 次重复。采用 PDA 平板涂布法分离种谷表面微生物,结 合菌落形态及菌体显微结构,以及 ITS 序列同源性分析,鉴定真菌与细菌。【结果】超声波处理对种谷有杀 菌作用,其中超声波湿法处理(Twet)优于干法处理,而 50 kHz 超声波干法处理(Tdry1)优于 25 kHz 超声波 干法处理(Tdry2)。检测到的 15 种种谷表面细菌中,超声波对甘蔗黄单胞菌 Xanthomonas sacchari、假单胞菌 Pseudomonas aeruginosa、粘金黄杆菌 Chryseobacterium gleum、成团泛菌 Pantoea agglomerans、嗜麦芽窄食单胞 菌 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia 等丰度较低的细菌杀菌效果较好,但对阴沟肠杆菌 Enterobacter cloacae 和肺炎克 雷伯菌 Klebsiella pneumoniae 等高丰度细菌杀菌效果较差。从稻谷表面检测到 11 种真菌, 超声波对层生镰刀菌 Fusarium proliferatum、尖孢镰刀菌 F. oxysporum、串珠镰刀菌 F. moniliforme,木贼镰刀菌 F. equiseti 与茎点霉菌 Phoma sp. 等杀菌效果较好,而对稻叶鞘腐败病菌 Sarocladium oryzae 及草酸青霉菌 Penicillium oxalicum 等杀菌效 果不显著,可能是由于后者丰度太高所致杀菌效果偏低。【结论】超声波处理对水稻种谷表面微生物具有杀菌作用, 但其效果与超声波处理方式、微生物种类及其丰度有关,超声波湿法处理杀菌效果比干法处理更好,超声波对 低丰度的镰孢菌类具有显著杀菌效果,可能是促进水稻萌发与壮秧的原因之一。
英文摘要:
      【Objective】Ultrasound wave (USW) treatment of rice seeds can promote seed germination and seedling growth, but its bactericidal effect is not clear. In this study, we intend to investigate the effects of USW on fungi and bacteria on the surface of rice seeds, and to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of different USW treatments and the influencing factors. We also try to analyze the reasons of the promotion of rice germination and seedling growth by USW. 【Methods】 Using the rice cultivar, Xiangyaxiangzhan, as material, three treatments, 25-50 kHz USW wet method (Twet), 50 kHz USW drying method (Tdry1) and 25 kHz USW drying method (Tdry2), were set up. The conventional wet method (CK1) and dry method (CK2) were taken as controls. The experiments were repeated three times. Microorganisms on the seed surfaces were separated by PDA plates. The fungi and bacteria were identified by combining colony features, microscopic structures and ITS sequences analysis. 【Results】USW had substantial bactericidal and fungicidal effects on seed surfaces. Wet treatment of USW (Twet) was better than dry treatment (Tdry1, Tdry2), and the 50 kHz USW (Tdry1) was better than 25-kHz USW (Tdry2). Among the 15 species of bacteria detected on seed surfaces, USW had the significant bactericidal effects on low abundance bacterial species such as Xanthomonas sacchari, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Chryseobacterium gleum, Pantoea agglomerans and Stenotrophomo maltophilia, but USW had not effects on the higher abundance bacteria such as Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Eleven fungi were detected on the seed surfaces, USW had better fungicidal effects on Fusarium proliferatum, F. oxysporum, F. moniliforme, F. equiseti and Phoma sp. But USW had not apparent effects on Sarocladium oryzae and Penicillium oxalicum with the relatively higher richness. 【Conclusion】USW has antimicrobial effects on rice seed surfaces, but the effects are related to the treatment ways of USW, microorganism species and their abundance. USW treatment on wet seeds has better bactericidal and fungicidal effects than those of USW treatment on dry seeds. USW has significant fungicidal effects on Fusarium spp with low abundance, which may be one of the reasons for promoting rice germination and seedling growth.
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