文章摘要
邓干然 1 ,何晓明 2,吕以志 2,郑 爽 1 ,崔振德 1 ,覃双眉1 ,何冯光 1.木薯宽窄双行起垄栽培模式及 机械化种植技术研究[J].广东农业科学,2019,46(5):142-148
木薯宽窄双行起垄栽培模式及 机械化种植技术研究
Study on Wide and Narrow Double-row Ridging Cultivation Mode and Mechanized Planting of Cassava
  
DOI:10.16768/j.issn.1004-874X.2019.05.020
中文关键词: 木薯  栽培  机械化  种植机  起垄机  块根  收获
英文关键词: cassava  cultivation  mechanization  planter  ridger  root tuber  harvesting
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0701605-01);中国热带农业科学院基本科研业务费(163013201 7005)
作者单位
邓干然 1 ,何晓明 2,吕以志 2,郑 爽 1 ,崔振德 1 ,覃双眉1 ,何冯光 1 1. 中国热带农业科学院农业机械研究所 / 农业农村部热带作物农业装备重点实验室广东 湛江 524091 2. 湛江市农业技术推广中心广东 湛江 524000 
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中文摘要:
      【目的】木薯是我国华南地区重要的淀粉或能源作物,目前主要依靠人工收获,生产成本高、 经济效益低。近年来研发的木薯收获机与当前等行距的栽培方式难以相适应,表现为牵引收获机的拖拉机行走 轮不可避免地碾压在木薯行上而压断木薯块根,造成块根损失率高达 17%。【方法】为避免拖拉机碾压木薯 行、提高块根收获率,针对有利于机械化收获的要求,以 66.2 kW 拖拉机的轮距尺寸为参考,设计了宽行距 120 cm、窄行距 60 cm、垄高 25~30 cm 的宽窄双行起垄种植的栽培模式,研制了配套的木薯起垄机和木薯联合种植机, 并在广东、海南、广西、云南等地开展不同产区适应性试验。【结果】采用宽窄双行起垄种植栽培模式,起垄 机作业效率 0.6~0.8 hm2/h,种植机作业效率约 0.6~0.7 hm2/h,机械化种植效率比人工提高 23 倍,机械化种植成 本仅为人工种植的 50%,木薯产量在 33~42 t/hm2,机械化收获时能够有效避免拖拉机碾压木薯行、显著减少断薯, 损失率在 5% 以下。【结论】宽窄双行起垄栽培模式,能够较好地适宜机械化种植与收获,促进农机农艺的高 度融合。
英文摘要:
      【Objective】 Cassava is an important starch and energy crop in China. At present, its production mainly relies on manual labor, which causes high production cost and low economic profit. The cassava harvesters developed in recent years seldom matched with equal row spacing cultivation mode adopted currently. While harvesting with these harvesters, tractor wheels inevitably crush on cassava rows and cassava roots are destroyed, which resulting in a root loss rate of up to 17%.【Method】In order to avoid row crushing and increase root harvest rate, according to the requirements of mechanized harvesting and the wheel size of a 66.2 kW tractor, a cultivation mode of wide and narrow double-row ridging planting was designed with wide row spacing being 120 cm, narrow row spacing being 60 cm, and ridge height being 25-30 cm. A cassava ridger and a cassava combined planter matching the planting mode were developed, and adaptability experiments were carried out in different producing areas including Guangdong, Hainan, Guangxi and Yunnan.【Result】With the wide and narrow double-row ridging cultivation mode, the ridging efficiency was 0.6-0.8 hm2/h, the planting efficiency was about 0.6-0.7 ha/h, the efficiency of mechanized planting was 23 times higher than that of manual planting and the cost of mechanized planting was only 50% of manual planting. The cassava yield(under mechanized planting) was 33-42 t/hm2. Mechanized harvesting with this planting mode could effectively avoid row crushing and significantly reduce root broken rate, with the loss rate of less than 5%.【Conclusion】The study showed that the wide and narrow double-row ridging cultivation mode can be well suited to mechanized planting and harvesting and promote the high integration of agricultural machinery and agronomy.
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