文章摘要
李静娟 1 ,康 轩 1 ,代金君 2,周 波 3,温武东 1.珠三角种植大户与普通农户主要 作物施肥情况对比分析[J].广东农业科学,2019,46(7):53-59
珠三角种植大户与普通农户主要 作物施肥情况对比分析
Comparative Analysis on Fertilization of Main CropsBetween Large Planting Households and OrdinaryFarmers in Pearl River Delta
  
DOI:10.16768/j.issn.1004-874X.2019.07.008
中文关键词: 珠三角  种植大户  规模经营  施肥  化肥减量
英文关键词: Pearl River Delta  large planting households  scale operation  fertilization  fertilizer reduction
基金项目:广东省耕地质量等级调查和肥料使用情况调查工作资金(粤农耕肥 [2018]36 号)
作者单位
李静娟 1 ,康 轩 1 ,代金君 2,周 波 3,温武东 1 1. 惠州市惠城区农业技术推广中心广东 惠州 516008 2. 惠州市农业农村综合服务中心广东 惠州 516001 3. 广东省农业科学院茶业研究所 / 广东省茶树资源创新利用重点实验室广东 广州 510640 
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中文摘要:
      【目的】对比分析惠城区种植大户与普通农户主要作物施肥情况和存在问题,为判断区域农 田施肥的合理性及调整肥料结构提供依据,探讨规模经营在化肥减量增效方面的积极作用。【方法】对惠城 区 91 户农户肥料使用情况进行问卷调查和分析。【结果】调查区化肥使用量在合理范围内、有机肥施用量偏 低。水稻平均产量不高,种植大户和普通农户水稻有机肥施用比例均较低,普通农户水稻化肥(N+P2O5+K2O) 施用量为 366.6 kg/hm2,N ∶ P2O5 ∶ K2O=1 ∶ 0.3 ∶ 0.7,趋于合理;种植大户化肥(N+P2O5+K2O)施用量 为 421.1 kg/hm2,种植大户水稻化肥 N ∶ P2O5 ∶ K2O=1 ∶ 0.5 ∶ 0.7,存在高氮高磷问题。甜玉米平均产量 较高,种植大户有机肥施用量高于普通农户,普通农户甜玉米化肥(N+P2O5+K2O)施用量为 627.6 kg/hm2, N:P2O5 ∶ K2O=1 ∶ 0.6 ∶ 0.8, 存 在 高 磷 问 题; 种 植 大 户 化 肥(N+P2O5+K2O) 施 用 量 为 508.1 kg/hm2, N∶P2O5 ∶ K2O=1 ∶ 0.5 ∶ 0.5,存在高磷低钾问题。蔬菜有机肥施用量种植大户高于普通农户,但仍低于推荐 施用量,普通农户蔬菜化肥(N+P2O5+K2O)施用量为 685.4 kg/hm2,N ∶ P2O5 ∶ K2O=1 ∶ 0.7 ∶ 0.7,存在高磷问题; 种植大户化肥(N+P2O5+K2O)施用量为 285.9 kg/hm2,N ∶ P2O5 ∶ K2O=1 ∶ 0.3 ∶ 0.5,存在低钾问题。种植大 户在甜玉米和蔬菜两种作物上化肥施用量分别比普通农户低 19.0% 和 58.3%。【结论】种植大户等新型经营主 体在增施有机肥、化肥减量等方面具有较大潜力,建议可以有针对性地提出化肥减量增效调控对策。
英文摘要:
      【Objective】The objective was to compare and analyze the fertilization status of major crops and existing problems between large planting households and ordinary farmers in Huicheng District, to provide a basis for judging the rationality of fertilization in regional farmland and adjusting fertilizer structure, and to explore the positive effects of scale management on fertilizer reduction.【Methods】The fertilization status of 91 households were investigated and analyzed in Huicheng District by questionnaire survey.【Results】The use of chemical fertilizer in the survey area was within a reasonable range and the application rate of organic manure was relatively low. The average yield of rice was not high. The application of organic manure in rice was low among large planting households and ordinary farmers. The average application rate of rice fertilizer (N+P2O5+K2O) by ordinary farmers was 366.6 kg/hm2, with N∶P2O5∶K2O=1∶0.3∶0.7, which tended to be reasonable. The application rate of chemical fertilizer (N+P2O5+K2O) by large planting households was 421.1 kg/hm2, with N∶P2O5∶K2O=1∶0.5∶0.7, which reflected a problem of high nitrogen and high phosphorus. The average yield of sweet corn was higher. The application rate of organic manure of large planting households was higher than that of ordinary farmers. The application rate of sweet corn fertilizer (N+P2O5+K2O) by ordinary farmers was 627.6 kg/hm2, with N∶P2O5∶K2O=1∶0.6∶0.8, which caused a problem of high phosphorus. The application rate of chemical fertilizer (N+P2O5+K2O) by large planting households was 508.1 kg/hm2, with N∶P2O5∶K2O=1∶0.5∶0.5, which reflected problems of high phosphorus and low potassium. The application rate of vegetable organic manure of large planting households was higher than that of ordinary farmers, but it was still lower than the recommended application rate. The application rate of vegetable fertilizer (N+P2O5+K2O) of ordinary farmers was 685.4 kg/hm2, with N∶P2O5∶K2O=1∶0.7∶0.7, which existed a problem of high phosphorus. The fertilizer application rate of large planting households (N+P2O5+K2O) was 285.9 kg/hm2, with N∶P2O5∶K2O=1∶0.3∶0.5, which contained a problem of low potassium. The amounts of chemical fertilizer applied by the large planting households on sweet corn and vegetable crops were 19.0% and 58.3% lower than those of ordinary farmers, respectively.【Conclusion】Newtype management entities such as large planting households have great potential in increasing the application of organic manure and reducing the application of chemical fertilizer. It is suggested that the countermeasures for fertilizer reduction and efficiency improvement can be proposed in a targeted manner.
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