文章摘要
刘沙沙 1 ,李 兵 2,张古彬 2,冯 翔 1 ,杨 坡 2,郭 林 2,李自涛 1 ,李志娟 2.猪粪有机肥替代化肥对黄淮地区油麦菜品质及养分利用的影响[J].广东农业科学,2019,46(8):71-79
猪粪有机肥替代化肥对黄淮地区油麦菜品质及养分利用的影响
Effect of Pig Manure Instead of Chemical Fertilizer onQuality and Nutrient Utilization Efficiency ofLettuces in Huanghuai Plain
  
DOI:10.16768/j.issn.1004-874X.2019.08.010
中文关键词: 猪粪  油麦菜  产量  品质  氮利用率  磷利用率
英文关键词: pig manure  lettuces  yield  quality  utilization efficiency of nitrogen  utilization efficiency of phosphorus
基金项目:河南省重大科技专项(161100310600)
作者单位
刘沙沙 1 ,李 兵 2,张古彬 2,冯 翔 1 ,杨 坡 2,郭 林 2,李自涛 1 ,李志娟 2 1. 河南省地质科学研究所河南 郑州 450001     2. 河南省地质调查院 / 河南省地球化学生态修复工程技术研究中心河南 郑州 450001 
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中文摘要:
      【目的】针对农村普遍存在的化肥施用过量、农产品质量下降和畜禽废弃物大量堆存等问题, 开展猪粪有机肥替代化肥试验。【方法】在黄淮地区选择典型种养结合区,采用田间小区试验方法,以 N 200.0 kg/hm2、 P2O5 96.8 kg/hm2 为参考施肥量(M),研究了不同猪粪有机肥施加量(减量 50%M、M 和增量 100%M)及替代比例(0%M、25%M、50%M、75%M 和 100%M,以氮磷为基准)对油麦菜产量、品质和氮磷 利用率的影响,确定最佳施肥量和有机肥替代化肥的比例。【结果】在单独施加有机肥且施肥量小于参考施肥 量条件下,油麦菜产量、氮磷利用率随施肥量增加而增加;而继续增加施肥量,增产效果不显著,且品质及氮 磷利用率均有所下降。相同施肥量,有机肥部分替代化肥对油麦菜氮磷含量影响不显著,但可提高其产量、品 质及氮磷利用率。与化肥对照相比,当有机肥替代比例为 25%~75% 时,油麦菜硝酸盐和亚硝酸盐含量可降低 19.4% 和 73.3%(P < 0.05)。有机肥替代比例为 75% 氮磷利用率为最高,较单施化肥提高 30.4% 和 44.9%。【结论】 采用参考施肥量 M 且有机肥替代比例为 75% 处理效果最优,不仅可保证油麦菜产量,还能有效提高品质和氮 磷肥利用率。研究结果可为区域蔬菜种植合理减量配施有机肥提供重要的科学依据,降低区域面源污染风险。
英文摘要:
      【Objective】In view of the prevailing problems such as excessive use of chemical fertilizer, decline in quality of agricultural products and the massive storage of livestock and poultry waste in rural areas, the experiment of fertilizer replaced by organic pig manure was carried out.【Method】In order to optimize the application amount of organic fertilizer and the replacement ratio of chemical fertilizer by organic fertilizer, the experiment was carried out in typical planting-breeding combined area of Huanghuai region by using the field plot trial method, and the effects of application amount and the replacement ratio of pig manure fertilizer on lettuces production, quality and nitrate/phosphorus utilization rates were investigated. The basic fertilization amount (M) was N 200.0 kg /hm2, P2O5 96.8 kg/hm2, and the fertilizer amount(M reduced by 50%, M, and M increased by 100%) and organic fertilizer replacement ratios (0% M, 25% M, 50% M, 75% M, and 100% M, based on nitrogen and phosphorus) were set according to test requirements.【Result】When the fertilizer amount was less than M, the yield of lettuces and the utilization rate of nitrogen and phosphorus increased with the increase of fertilizer application rate under the condition of single organic fertilizer application. When continuing to increase the amount of fertilizer application, the yield increased insignificantly, and the quality and nitrogen and phosphorus utilization rates decreased slightly. When fertilization amount was the same, replacing certain amount of chemical fertilizer with organic fertilizer had no significant effect on the nitrogen and phosphorus contents of lettuces, but it could improve its yield, quality and nitrogen and phosphorus utilization rates. When the replacement ratio of organic fertilizer was 25%-75%, the nitrate and nitrite contents of lettuces were reduced by 19.4% and 73.3% (P< 0.05) compared with those of the chemical fertilizer control. The highest utilization rates of nitrogen and phosphorus was obtained with an organic fertilizer replacement ratio of 75%, which were 30.4% and 44.9% higher than those of chemical fertilizer control.【Conclusion】The 75% organic fertilizer with 25% chemical fertilizer group has the best effect on the yield of lettuces, and can improve the quality and utilization rate of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer effectively. The results of this study provide an important scientific basis for the determination of fertilizer reduction for regional vegetable planting and reduce risk of non-point source pollution.
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