文章摘要
张 琪,贾俊婷,张爱霞,刘文华,陈兵先.水稻穗发芽研究进展[J].广东农业科学,2022,49(11):128-137
查看全文    HTML 水稻穗发芽研究进展
Research Progress in Pre-harvest Sprouting of Rice
  
DOI:10.16768/j.issn.1004-874X.2022.11.014
中文关键词: 穗发芽  休眠  QTL  基因  种质资源  穗萌抑制
英文关键词: pre-harvest sprouting  dormancy  QTL  gene  germplasm resource  inhibition of pre-harvest sprouting
基金项目:广东省基础与应用基础研究基金(2022A1515012302,2020A1515011535);广州市基础与应用基础 研究项目(202002030403);广东省农作物种质资源保存与利用重点实验室项目(2020B121201008);广东省科技 计划项目(2020B121201013)
作者单位
张 琪,贾俊婷,张爱霞,刘文华,陈兵先 广东省农业科学院农业生物基因研究中心 / 广东省农作物种质资源保存 与利用重点实验室广东 广州 510640 
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中文摘要:
      作物收获前的穗发芽是一个严重的全球性农业生产问题。经过漫长的驯化过程,栽培作物的休眠 水平普遍低于野生祖先。尽管休眠期的缩短可能提高作物的繁殖代数和农业产值,但过早的休眠释放使作物在 成熟收获前发生穗萌发,造成巨大的经济损失。从穗发芽的生理基础、穗发芽相关 QTL 和基因、穗发芽防控及 展望等方面对水稻穗发芽现象进行梳理,认为高含水量是水稻种子萌发和穗发芽的先决条件,该过程中,淀粉 酶活性增强和可溶性糖含量升高为穗发芽提供能量,水稻籽粒中植物激素 ABA 和 GA 的含量及种子对二者的敏 感性是决定穗发芽的关键所在。近年来,穗发芽相关 QTL 及其功能基因的挖掘为阐明水稻穗萌机理以及培育穗 发芽抗性品种提供重要依据。从长远来看,广泛开展水稻种质资源鉴评,尤其在野生稻、地方品种中寻找丢失 的休眠基因,并通过分子育种途径聚集此类基因,培育抗穗萌品系(品种),对于解决穗发芽问题、提高水稻 产量和品质、保证国家粮食安全具有重要意义。
英文摘要:
      Pre-harvest sprouting is a serious problem in global agricultural production. After a long period of domestication, the dormancy level of cultivated crops is generally lower than that of wild ancestors. Although the shortening of dormancy period may increase the reproductive generation and agricultural production value of crops, premature dormancy release will cause crop sprouting before harvest, resulting in huge economic losses. In this paper, the physiological mechanism, QTL and genes, prevention and control of pre-harvest sprouting are systematically reviewed. It is believed that high water content is the precondition of rice seed germination and pre-harvest sprouting, during this process, the increases of amylase activity and soluble sugar content provide energy for pre-harvest sprouting; the contents of plant hormones ABA and GA in rice grains and the sensitivity of seeds to them are the key factors to determine the pre-harvest germination. In recent years, the excavation of QTL and its functional genes related to pre-harvest sprouting will provide an important basis for clarifying the mechanism of pre-harvest sprouting in rice and breeding resistant varieties. In the long run, through extensive evaluation of rice germplasm resources, especially searching for the lost dormancy genes in wild rice and local varieties, and gathering such genes through molecular breeding, breeding lines (varieties) resistant to sprouting, it is of great significance to solve the problem of sprouting, improve rice yield and quality, and ensure national food security.
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