文章摘要
李 堂 1,2,曹华盛 1,熊 亮 1,王福军1,李曙光 1,顾海永 1,罗文永 1,何 高1,梁世胡 1.水稻粒型调控基因功能研究进展[J].广东农业科学,2023,50(12):12-28
查看全文    HTML 水稻粒型调控基因功能研究进展
Research Progress on the Function of Rice Grain Type Genes
  
DOI:10.16768/j.issn.1004-874X.2023.12.002
中文关键词: 水稻  粒型  信号通路  交叉互作  育种  功能  调控
英文关键词: rice  grain type  signaling pathway  cross interaction  breeding  function  regulation
基金项目:广东省自然科学基金(2021A1515010948);广东省农业科学院农业优势产业学科团队建设项目(202101TD);广东省重点领域研发计划项目(2022B0202060002,2020B0202090003);广东省水稻育种新技术重点实验室项目(2023B1212060042);广东省农业科学院水稻研究所“优谷计划(所长基金)”项目(2023YG07)
作者单位
李 堂 1,2,曹华盛 1,熊 亮 1,王福军1,李曙光 1,顾海永 1,罗文永 1,何 高1,梁世胡 1 1. 广东省农业科学院水稻研究所 / 农业农村部华南优质稻遗传育种重点实验室(部省共建)/ 广东省水稻育种新技术重点实验室 / 广东省水稻工程实验室广东 广州 510640 2. 华中农业大学植物科学技术学院湖北 武汉 430070 
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中文摘要:
      水稻是世界上的重要谷类粮食作物之一,其产量和品质一直都是育种学家关注的重点,关系到全球粮食安全和人类健康。水稻粒型主要包括粒长、粒宽、粒厚等,是受多基因控制的重要数量性状,不仅直接影响水稻产量,还与水稻品质密切相关。深入了解水稻粒型的形成与调控机理将有助于进一步提升水稻单株产量、改善稻米品质。分子生物学的发展和基因组学的研究为探究水稻内部调控机制带来了新的变革。大量水稻粒型的数量性状遗传位点(Quantitative trait locus,QTL)成功被鉴定与解析,并验证了与之有关的基因功能。目前,已有几条调控粒型的通路得到鉴定,如泛素 - 蛋白酶体降解途径、G 蛋白信号途径、丝裂原活化蛋白激酶途径、转录因子调控途径、植物激素途径以及表观遗传途径等。然而,粒型调控网络极其复杂,多数基因上下游的调控组件作用机制尚不清楚,甚至影响粒型的各条通路间均存在一定的交叉互作。本文综述了影响水稻粒型的不同信号通路相关基因研究进展及关键粒型基因间的互作关系,总结了近年来粒型基因在育种上的应用情况,并提出结合多组学解析水稻粒型的调控机理研究,以期更好地服务于分子设计育种,为开发新的高产优质稻育种提供支撑。
英文摘要:
      Rice is one of the important cereal crops in the world, and its yield and quality have always been the focus of breeders, which are related to global food security and human health. Rice grain type, mainly includes grain length, grain width and grain thickness, is an important quantitative trait controlled by multiple genes,and it not only directly affects rice yield, but is also closely related to rice quality. A good understanding of the formation and regulation mechanism of grain type will help to further increase rice yield per plant and improve rice quality. The development of molecular biology and the study of genomics have brought new changes to the exploration of the internal regulation mechanism of rice. A large number of quantitative trait locus (QTL) of rice grain type have been successfully identified and analyzed, and the functions of genes related to them have been verified. So far, several pathways regulating grain type have been identified, such as ubiquitin-proteasome degradation pathway, G protein signaling pathway, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, transcription factor regulation pathway, plant hormone pathway and MiRNA-related pathways. However, the regulatory network of grain type is extremely complex, and the mechanisms of the upstream and downstream regulatory components of many genes are still unclear, and there are even some cross interactions among the pathways that affect grain type. This review discussed the research progress of genes related to different signaling pathways affecting rice grain type and the interaction between key grain type genes, summarized the application of grain type genes in breeding in recent years, and proposed to analyze the regulation mechanism of rice grain type with multi-omics, with an aim to better serve the molecular design and breeding and provide support for the development of new high-yield and high-quality rice breeding.
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