文章摘要
陆展华,刘 维,王石光,巫浩翔,王晓飞,陈 浩,潘朝阳,何秀英.国内外旱稻研究现状及对广东的启示[J].广东农业科学,2023,50(12):62-72
查看全文    HTML 国内外旱稻研究现状及对广东的启示
Research Status of Upland Rice Worldwide and Its Enlightenment to Guangdong Province
  
DOI:10.16768/j.issn.1004-874X.2023.12.006
中文关键词: 旱稻  育种  干旱  低碳  栽培技术
英文关键词: upland rice  breeding  drought  low carbon  cultivation technology
基金项目:广东省农业科学院中青年学科带头人(金颖之星)培养项目(R2023PY-JX003);广东省现代农业产业技术体系专项(2023KJ105);广东省乡村振兴战略专项资金种业振兴项目(2022-NPY-00-001);广东省水稻育种新技术重点实验室项目(2023B1212060042)
作者单位
陆展华,刘 维,王石光,巫浩翔,王晓飞,陈 浩,潘朝阳,何秀英 广东省农业科学院水稻研究所 / 农业农村部华南优质稻遗传育种重点实验室(部省共建)/ 广东省水稻育种新技术重点实验室广东 广州 510640 
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中文摘要:
      旱稻是水稻长期驯化演变形成的一种生态类型,主要分布在夏季雨水稳定但缺乏灌溉条件的旱地、山坡地。目前,全世界旱稻种植面积约 1 900 万 hm2,约占水稻栽培总面积的 12.7%。旱稻在我国具有丰富的资源和悠久的种植历史,在国内不同稻作区均有分布。农业是重要的温室气体排放源之一,其中水稻种植过程中需要建立较长时期的水层,排放的温室气体约占农业的 16%。而旱稻种植在减少稻田温室气体排放中发挥着重要作用,对保障国家粮食安全和国家碳达峰、碳中和目标的实现具有重要意义。由于光温条件和降雨量总体相对平衡,广东各生态区以双季水稻种植为主,旱稻发展相对滞后。随着农村劳动力减少、水资源短缺,以及高温干旱等极端天气的不断发生,广东乃至华南稻作区对旱稻品种的需求逐年增加。本文介绍了国内外旱稻抗旱机制、品种培育及配套技术研究进展,对广东旱稻研究和种植现状进行分析,并提出了广东旱稻研究的建议,以期为广东旱稻品种的分子育种、低碳栽培技术的研发提供参考。
英文摘要:
      Upland rice, an ecological type formed by the long-term domestication of rice, is mainly distributed in dry land and hilly land with stable summer rainfall but insufficient irrigation conditions. Currently, the cultivated area of upland rice in the world is about 19 million hm2, accounting for about 12.7% of the total cultivated rice area. With rich resources and a long planting history, upland rice is distributed in different rice growing areas in China. Agriculture is one of the most important sources of greenhouse gas emissions, in which the long-term water layer needs to be established in the process of rice cultivation, accounting for about 16% of the greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. Many studies have shown that planting upland rice plays an important role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from paddy fields, which is of great significance for ensuring national food security and achieving national carbon peak and carbon neutrality goals. Due to the relative balance of light, temperature and rainfall in Guangdong Province, double-croping rice is the main planting pattern in each ecological region, and the development of upland rice is relatively lagging. With the decrease of the rural labor force, the shortage of water resources and the continuous occurrence of extreme weather such as high temperature and drought in Guangdong and South China, the market demand for upland rice varieties has increased year by year. This review introduces the drought resistance mechanism, breeding and supporting technologies of upland rice in China and abroad, analyzes the research and planting status of upland rice in Guangdong, and puts forward suggestions on upland rice researches, providing references for molecular breeding and low-carbon cultivation technology of upland rice varieties in Guangdong Province.
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