文章摘要
陈树嘉 1,罗克波 1,林桂芬 1,陈达刚 2,刘传光 2,周新桥 2,郭 洁 2,陈 可 2.2004—2022 年广东审定水稻品种优质化与产量、抗性协同改良育种进展[J].广东农业科学,2023,50(12):73-82
查看全文    HTML 2004—2022 年广东审定水稻品种优质化与产量、抗性协同改良育种进展
Progress in Collaborative Improvement of High Quality, Yield, and Disease Resistance Breeding of Approved Rice Varieties in Guangdong from 2004 to 2022
  
DOI:10.16768/j.issn.1004-874X.2023.12.007
中文关键词: 广东  水稻育种  米质  抗性  产量  改良
英文关键词: Guangdong  rice breeding  rice quality  resistance  yield  improvement
基金项目:广东省驻镇帮镇扶村农村科技特派员团队项目(KTP20210382);广东省乡村振兴战略专项资金种业振兴项目(2022-NPY-00-001)
作者单位
陈树嘉 1,罗克波 1,林桂芬 1,陈达刚 2,刘传光 2,周新桥 2,郭 洁 2,陈 可 2 1. 揭阳市农业科学研究所广东 揭阳 5220312. 广东省农业科学院水稻研究所广东 广州 510640 
摘要点击次数: 316
全文下载次数: 292
中文摘要:
      本文简述广东省稻米市场对水稻品质要求,以及政府主管部门政策导向对水稻优质化育种的推进作用。通过收集 2004—2022 年间广东省审定的 1 101 个水稻品种的区域试验数据,统计各年审定品种达国标优质或部标优质等级的水稻品种数,并从米质指标、抗性与产量的角度对广东省优质稻育种进展进行评价。2004—2022 年广东省审定水稻品种中,106 个品种(组合)米质达到国标(部标)优质一级,占所有审定品种的 9.63%,320 个品种(组合)达国标(部标)优质二级,占所有品种的 29.06%,但早季品种优质率显著低于晚季。在所有米质性状指标中,垩白度和垩白粒率达国标(部标)优质二级以上的达标率最低,分别为 41.8%和 43.5%,早季参试品种直链淀粉含量的达标率仅 37.32%,说明这 3 个性状是新品种选育的重点改良方向。历年审定米质达国标(部标)优质二级以上品种的平均产量逐年提升,说明广东水稻优质化育种中,产量和品质实现了协同提升。国标(部标)优质二级以上的品种中,稻瘟病抗性达“中抗”以上水平的比例为 85%,白叶枯病抗性达“中抗”以上水平的比例为 22.2%。总体上杂交稻达国标(部标)优质二级以上的品种比例在提升,但较常规稻优质化育种还有较大差距。广东省水稻品种优质化率逐年提升,“优、丰、抗”的协调比例越来越好,但仍存在优化空间。培育“双抗”优质稻品种,需着力提升新品种的白叶枯病抗性水平。通过加大对地方品种等一些特异种质资源的评价利用来拓宽遗传背景,避免品种同质化,提高抗病性和抗逆性,加强传统育种和分子育种的结合,提高育种效率。
英文摘要:
      This article succinctly outlines the requirements for rice quality in Guangdong Province and the role of government regulatory policies in advancing high-quality rice breeding. By collecting the regional trial data of 1 101 rice varieties approved by Guangdong Province from 2004 to 2022, the number of varieties meeting the national or ministerial standards approved in each year were counted, and the progress of high-quality rice breeding in Guangdong was evaluated from the perspectives of quality index, resistance and yield. From 2004 to 2022, 106 varieties (combinations) meeting the quality of national standard (ministerial standard) (9.63% of all approved varieties) level I and 320 varieties (combinations) reaching the quality of national standard (ministerial standard) (29.06%) level II were approved by Guangdong. Notably, early season varieties exhibited lower quality rates compared with late season varieties. For rice quality traits, early-season trial varieties displayed lower compliance rates in the quality of national standard (ministerial standard) level II, with chalkiness and chalky grain rate of 41.8% and 43.5%, respectively; the amylose content compliance rate in early-season trial varieties was only 37.32%, indicating that key improvements should be conducted in these three areas for new variety breeding. The average yield of rice varieties with quality meeting national standard level II or above has consistently risen, indicating synergistic improvements in yield and rice quality during the high-quality rice breeding in Guangdong. Varieties meeting the national standard (ministerial standard) level II or above also showed promising resistance rates against rice blast disease (85% at medium resistance or above) and bacterial blght disease (22.2% at medium resistance or above). Generally, while the percentage of hybrid rice varieties meeting high-quality standards is increasing, there is still a notable gap compared to conventional rice breeding. The proportion of high-quality rice varieties in Guangdong has been steadily growing, with a positive trend in “excellent, abundant and resistant” varieties. However, further optimization is possible. To cultivate high-quality rice varieties with double resistances, efforts should be put to enhance resistance to bacterial wilt disease. The evaluation and utilization of specific germplasm resources like local varieties should be increased to diversify the genetic background. This approach helps avoid variety homogenization, improves disease and stress resistance and strengthens the synergy between traditional and molecular breeding, enhancing overall breeding efficiency.
  查看/发表评论  下载PDF阅读器

手机扫一扫看