文章摘要
曾恺莹,赖明建,田瑞钧,吴拥军,何志劲,吴绮嫚.广东省水稻品种区试中对照品种的特点与趋势[J].广东农业科学,2023,50(12):83-95
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Characteristics and Trends of Control Rice Varieties Used in Regional Trials in Guangdong Province
  
DOI:10.16768/j.issn.1004-874X.2023.12.008
中文关键词: 品种审定  区域试验  对照品种  品种选育  品种改良  华南双季稻稻作区  农艺性状
英文关键词: variety certification  regional trial  control variety  breed selection  variety improvement  double-season rice area of South China, agronomic character
基金项目:广东省佛山市农业科学研究与示范推广项目(佛农农〔2023〕12 号)
作者单位
曾恺莹,赖明建,田瑞钧,吴拥军,何志劲,吴绮嫚 佛山市农业科学研究所 / 佛山市农业技术推广中心广东 佛山 528145 
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中文摘要:
      【目的】归纳总结 2006—2022 年广东省水稻品种区域试验中对照品种的主要特性和更迭情况,阐明广东地区水稻的育种进展,为华南双季稻稻作区的水稻育种工作提供参考。【方法】根据 2006—2022 年广东省水稻品种区试中对照品种的相关数据,统计对照品种的更迭情况,并分析其产量、品质性状、抗病性等重要性状表现。【结果】在 16 年(2006—2022 年)区试中一共使用过 31 个对照品种,这些对照品种大多具有高产、广适、抗稻瘟病的优势。其中有 15 个对照品种可在广东省以外地区进行推广种植,8 个常规稻对照品种曾在广东省内大范围种植,3 个杂交稻对照品种是被农业农村部认定的超级稻。2022 年常规稻对照品种早、晚季的平均产量分别为 7 176.1±243.6 kg/hm2 和 6 500.9±117.08 kg/hm2,杂交稻对照品种早、晚季的平均产量分别为7 282.0±358.6 kg/hm2 和 6 835.8±175.2 kg/hm2。27 个对照品种对稻瘟病的抗性达到中抗及以上水平,8 个对照品种对白叶枯病的抗性达到中抗及以上水平。对照品种平均使用年限为 5 年,更新的对照品种主要在产量与品质方面有所提高。16 年间对照品种早季的平均产量增加 301.8~417.0 kg/hm2,晚季的平均产量增加 778.20~966.15 kg/hm2。2022 年的对照品种整体品质比 2006 年明显提高,谷粒长宽比从 2.76 提高至 3.25,平均垩白度从 13.4%下降至 9.6%,胶稠度从 57.5 mm 延长至 66.2 mm,整精米率从 58.06% 提高至 60.51%。对照品种的平均直链淀粉含量从 2012 年开始出现下降,降幅 1.2%~5.6%。【结论】2006—2021 年广东省选择的水稻对照品种综合品质较好,随着生产水平的提高及时更换产量与品质更好的对照品种,且在审定过程中优中选优,令新品种的产量稳步提升、品质性状明显改良,更加符合生产发展要求。
英文摘要:
      【Objective】The study presents a systematic review of data on the primary features and turnover of control varieties in regional trials of rice varieties conducted in Guangdong Province. It aims to clarify the progress made in rice breeding in Guangdong and to provide references for rice breeding practices in the double-season rice area of South China.【Method】Based on the related data of control varieties used in regional trials of rice varieties from 2006 to 2022, statistics on variations in control varieties were conducted, and the significant traits such as yield, quality traits and disease resistance of these varieties were analyzed.【Result】Throughout the 16-year regional trial period, a total of 31 control varieties were utilized, the majority of which demonstrated high yield, extensive adaptability and resistance to rice blast disease. Fifteen of the control varieties could be promoted and planted outside Guangdong Province, eight conventional rice control varieties have been widely planted in Guangdong Province, and three hybrid rice control varieties have been recognized as super rice by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs. The average yields of the conventional rice control varieties in early and late seasons of 2022 were 7 176.1±243.6 kg/hm2 and 6 500.9±117.08 kg/hm2, respectively. While the hybrid rice control varieties had average yields of 7 282.0±358.6 kg/hm2 and 6 835.8±175.2 kg/hm2 in the early and late seasons, respectively. Twenty-seven control varieties exhibited resistance and moderate resistance to rice blast, while eight control varieties demonstrated resistance and moderate resistance to leaf blight. On average, control varieties were replaced every five years, with the recently replaced control varieties exhibiting enhancements in yield and quality. The average yields of the control varieties increased by 301.8-417.0 kg/hm2 in the early season and by 778.20-966.15 kg/hm2 in the late season during the 16-year trials. The overall quality of the control variety in 2022 was significantly enhanced compared to that in 2006. Specifically, the grain length-breadth ratio increased from 2.76 to 3.25, the average chalkiness decreased from 13.4% to 9.6%, the gel consistency increased from 57.5 mm to 66.2 mm, and the head rice rate increased from 58.06% to 60.51%. The average amylase content of the control variety decreased to 1.2%-5.6% from 2012.【Conclusion】The study analyzes the use of control varieties in regional trials of rice varieties conducted in Guangdong Province from 2006 to 2021. The findings suggest that the selected control varieties demonstrate outstanding overall quality in Guangdong Province. With the improvement of rice production levels, the control varieties with higher yield and better quality are replaced in time and the best ones are selected from excellent varieties in the process of approval. In this way, the yield of new variety is steadily increased and the quality traits are improved, which is more in line with the requirements of production development
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