文章摘要
汪家凯 1,2,陈文丰1,彭菁菁 1,2,刘彦卓 1,梁开明 1,李 晨 1,毛兴学 1,潘俊峰 1.华南超大穗型水稻种质 DS23“源 - 库 - 流”特征及其超高产潜力研究[J].广东农业科学,2023,50(12):150-159
查看全文    HTML 华南超大穗型水稻种质 DS23“源 - 库 - 流”特征及其超高产潜力研究
Source-sink-flow Characteristics and Super-high Yield Potential of the Super-large-panicle Rice Line DS23 in South China
  
DOI:10.16768/j.issn.1004-874X.2023.12.015
中文关键词: 早稻  大穗  “源 - 库 - 流”特征  非结构性碳水化合物  糖花比  维管束结构
英文关键词: early rice  large-panicle  source-flow-sink characteristics  non-structural carbohydrate  NSC/spikelet ratio  vascular bundle structure
基金项目:广州市科技计划项目(201806010094,202201010604);广东省乡村振兴战略专项资金种业振兴项目(2022NPY00005);国家重点研发计划子课题(2021YFD1200101-05)
作者单位
汪家凯 1,2,陈文丰1,彭菁菁 1,2,刘彦卓 1,梁开明 1,李 晨 1,毛兴学 1,潘俊峰 1 1. 广东省农业科学院水稻研究所 / 广东省水稻育种新技术重点实验室广东 广州 510640 2. 华南农业大学农学院广东 广州 510640 
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中文摘要:
      【目的】研究超大穗型水稻新品系 DS23 在早季的产量表现和“源 - 库 - 流”特征,探明 DS23“源 - 库 -流”特征及其超高产潜力挖掘方向,为华南早稻高产育种与栽培提供理论依据。【方法】以超大穗型新品系DS23 为供试材料,以中大穗型品种粤禾丝苗为对照,在大田条件下开展研究。试验测定并比较了不同穗型水稻的叶面积指数、SPAD 值、茎鞘非结构性碳水化合物(Non structural carbohydrate,NSC)积累与转运特征、穗茎节间解剖特征、产量及其构成因子等性状。【结果】DS23 每穗总粒数、粒重、库容量和产量分别比粤禾丝苗增加 37.3%、4.0%、33.7% 和 15.9%,有效穗数和结实率比粤禾丝苗显著降低 6.8% 和 15.1%。两品种间抽穗期叶面积指数和剑叶 SPAD 值无显著差异。与粤禾丝苗相比,DS23 抽穗期茎鞘 NSC 积累量与茎鞘 NSC 对籽粒的表观贡献率分别显著降低 15.3% 和 19.8%,茎鞘 NSC 表观转运率显著提高 10.3%,大维管束数量显著增加 17.3%,两品种穗茎大小维管束面积无显著差异;DS23 粒叶比无显著变化,糖花比显著降低 34.2%,维管束负荷量指标增加 20.4%~60.2%。【结论】超大穗型水稻 DS23 在早季种植库容量大、穗颈节间转运组织发达、后期物质转化能力强,高产与增产潜力大,提高结实率是挖掘其超高产潜力的主要方向,研究结果可为超大穗型早稻品种选育与高产栽培技术研发提供理论依据。
英文摘要:
      【Objective】It aims to study the yield performance and source-sink-fl ow characteristics of new strain of super-large-panicle rice DS23 in early season, and explore the source-fl ow-sink characteristics and super-high yield potential of DS23, with an aim to provide theoretical basis for high-yield breeding and cultivation of early rice in South China.【Method】The study was conducted under fi eld conditions with the new super-large panicle type strain DS23 as test material and the medium to large panicle type variety YHSM as the control. The leaf area index, SPAD value, accumulation and transport characteristics of non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) in stems, anatomical characteristics of vascular bundles and yield component factors of different panicle types of rice were measured and compared.【Result】The number of grain per panicle, grain weight, sink capacity and yield of DS23 were increased by 37.3%, 4.0%, 33.7% and 15.9% respectively compared to those of YHSM seedlings. The effective number of panicles and seed setting rate were signifi cantly decreased by 6.8% and 15.1% compared to those of YHSM seedlings. There was no signifi cant difference in leaf area index and fl ag leaf SPAD value between the two varieties at heading stage. Compared with YHSM, total mass of NSC reserved in stem and apparent contribution of transferred NSC to grain yield of DS23 were significantly reduced by 15.3% and 19.8%, respectively, and the apparent transport rate of stem sheath NSC was signifi cantly increased by 10.3%; The DS23 vascular bundle number was signifi cantly increased by 17.3%, and there was no signifi cant difference in the vascular bundle area between the two varieties; DS23 showed no signifi cant change in grain/leaf ratio, with a signifi cant decrease in NSC/spikelet ratio of 34.2% and an increase in vascular bundle load index of 20.4%-6 0.2%.【Conclusion】The super-large panicle type rice germplasm DS23 planted in early season has a large sink capacity, well-developed vascular bundles transport organization, strong material transformation ability in later stage and great potential for high yield and yield increase. Improvement in seed setting rate is a main direction for exploring its super-high yield potential. The study result lays a theoretical foundation for the breeding of super-large panicle early rice varieties and the research and development of high yield cultivation techniques.
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