文章摘要
戴宏芬,李俊成,潘玉珠,孙清明.火龙果砧木与接穗参数的研究[J].广东农业科学,2021,48(1):79-86
查看全文    HTML 火龙果砧木与接穗参数的研究
Study on Parameters of Rootstock and Scion About Grafting of Pitaya
  
DOI:10.16768/j.issn.1004-874X.2020.07.010
中文关键词: 火龙果  嫁接  砧木  接穗  成熟度  正交设计
英文关键词: pitaya  grafting  rootstock  scion  maturity  Orthogonal array design(OAD)
基金项目:广东省重点领域研发计划项目(2018B020202011);广东省农业农村厅项目(2020KJ257);广东省 现代农业产业技术体系优稀水果创新团队建设项目(2019KJ116);广东省乡村振兴战略专项(粤农计﹝ 2018 ﹞ 37 号、 粤财农﹝ 2019 ﹞ 73 号)
作者单位
戴宏芬,李俊成,潘玉珠,孙清明 广东省农业科学院果树研究所 / 农业农村部南亚热带果树生物学与遗传资源利用重点实验室 / 广东省热带亚热带果树研究重点实验室广东 广州 510640 
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中文摘要:
      【目的】探究火龙果嫁接技术中砧木与接穗选择的具体参数,以提高嫁接成活率和出芽速度, 完善火龙果嫁接技术。【方法】以红水晶 6 号火龙果为试材,砧木取自不同长度的老熟或绿熟茎蔓,选取砧木 在茎蔓中相对位置(砧位)、嫁接方法、接穗芽数、接穗成熟度等因素,采用混合正交或正交设计进行嫁接试 验;根据接穗是否萌芽、出芽时间等分别对砧木长度、质量、砧木质量 / 长度比、砧木周长、接穗长度等砧穗 参数进行多元方差分析。【结果】老熟和绿熟的短茎蔓(可切分两根砧木)嫁接成活率较高,分别为 75.0% 和 87.5%;老熟的长茎蔓(可切分 3 根砧木)不宜选用单芽接穗;绿熟长茎蔓的中段不宜用做砧木;砧木偏长、砧 木质量 / 长度比较低、成熟度偏嫩、接穗偏长有利于嫁接成活,当砧木较短、较粗、较重、砧木质量 / 长度比较高、 成熟度偏老时接穗萌芽较晚甚至不能萌芽。【结论】初步确定红水晶 6 号砧木嫁接的基本原则,选取 1~2 年生 茎蔓,优先使用绿熟茎蔓,但避免使用绿熟长茎蔓中段为砧木,砧木长度不低于 40 cm,选取生长点附近充实成 熟的茎段为接穗,从顶部开始截取接穗进行嫁接,接穗含 2 芽且长度不低于 3 cm,使用平接法为主,嫁接成活 率达 81.2%,生产实用性较好,对火龙果苗木繁育生产具有参考意义。
英文摘要:
      【Objective】This study was made to perfect grafting technique and parameters of rootstock and scion of pitaya so as to improve grafting survival rate and ensure bud sprouting in time.【Method】‘Hongshuijing No.6’ pitaya was selected as test material. Rootstocks were cut from ripe or green ripe vine-type shoots with different lengths. Mixed orthogonal array design (OAD) and OAD were used to observe the effect of rootstock position in vine, grafting method, number of buds per scion and scion maturity on grafting survival. Multivariate analyses on parameters of rootstock length, mass, ratio of mass to length, rootstock circumference and scion length were conducted with whether scion sprouted or not and scion sprouted time as the dependent variable respectively.【Result】The grafting survival rates of short ripe and green ripe vines, cut into 2 sections averagely for rootstocks, were 75.0% and 87.5%, respectively. Long ripe vine, cut into 3 sections averagely for rootstocks, was unfit to be grafted with one bud scion. The middle section from long green ripe vine was unfit for rootstock. It was estimated that longer rootstock, rootstock with lower ratio of mass to length and slight maturity, and longer scion might be suitable for grafting. Scions grafted on shorter, thicker and heavier rootstocks with higher ratio of mass to length and maturity were prone to germinate later or even unable to germinate.【Conclusion】The basic principle of the grafting of ‘Hongshuijing No. 6’ rootstocks was preliminarily determined. 1-2 years old vines, preferably green ripe vines, may be used for rootstocks. However, the middle section of long green ripe vine was unfit for rootstock. Rootstock length was not less than 40 cm. Scions were selected from solid stems near growing point and cut from up to down for grafting. Scion length was not less than 3 cm with 2 buds at least. Flat grafting was preferred. The grafting technique proved to be effective and practical after mass grafting was carried out with high survival rate of 81.2%. Therefore, it was advocated to be used for breeding and production of pitaya seedlings.
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