文章摘要
梁立峰.荔枝成花过程及其重要制约因子[J].广东农业科学,2021,48(4):37-46
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Floral Formation Processes of Litchi and the Important Restrictive Factors
  
DOI:10.16768/j.issn.1004-874X.2021.04.006
中文关键词: 荔枝  花芽分化  圆锥花序  聚伞花序  寒潮  水分  日照
英文关键词: litchi  floral differentiation  panicle  cymose  cold waves  water  sunlight
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梁立峰  
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中文摘要:
      荔枝花序由圆锥花序(复总状花序)和二岐聚伞花序共同组成,圆锥花序构建花序骨架,二岐聚 伞花序着生小花,可称为“圆锥基聚伞花序”。荔枝成花要经历两个重要的转折点,一是末次秋梢顶端从生理 分化状态转入形态分化,二是发育中的花序从圆锥花序分化状态转入聚伞花序的分化,据此认为荔枝成花过程 分 3 个步骤完成:(1)花序原基的诱导和孕育;(2)圆锥花序抽生及花序骨架构建;(3)聚伞花序分化及花 器官建成。讨论了树体营养状况、温度、降雨、日照等重要内外因子对荔枝成花过程的影响和制约,指出大年 过量挂果耗竭树体内养分是影响次年成花的主要内因,而冬春寒潮如何入侵是制约荔枝成花的最重要环境因素, 认为岭南荔枝的成花过程需要冬春有寒潮适时适度入侵,而冬春寒潮的不适当侵袭是导致荔枝“不规则结实” 的重要外部原因。强调荔枝成花需要充足的体内养分及适当的天气条件,而调整荔枝树体的生理状态是不良环 境条件下荔枝促花保果的主要手段。
英文摘要:
      The inflorescence of litchi is composed of both panicle (compound raceme) and dichasia. The function of component panicle is to build up the skeleton of the inflorescence, and the component dichasia is special for the differentiation of flowers. The litchi inflorescence can be regarded as“cymes based on panicle”. There are two turning points in the floral formation processes of litchi. First, the physiological differentiation is switched into the morphological differentiation at the terminal buds of last autumn shoots. Second, the developing inflorescence transforms its differentiating status from panicle development to cymose differentiation. Therefore, the entire floral formation process can be divided, by using the two turning points, into three stages as follows: (1) Floral primordial induction and development. (2) Panicle emerges and elongates and the building up of the skeleton of the inflorescence. (3) Setting of flowers on cymose branches and the differentiation of floral organs. In this paper, we discussed how the important internal and external factors, such as nutritional status of trees, temperature, rainfall, sunlight affect and restrict the floral formation processes of litchi. It was pointed out that too heavy cropping which depleted the nutrients inside the tree is the main internal reason affecting floral formation of next year, and how the cold waves invaded in winter and spring is the most important environmental factor restricting the floral formation process of litchi. It was thought that litchis in Southern China need cold waves invade at right moment and right strength during the period of winter and spring for their floral formation, and the improper coming of the cold waves in winter and spring is the important external reason to cause the “irregular bearing” of litchi. We also emphasized, that both adequate internal nutrients and suitable weather conditions are necessary for the floral formation of litchi. Thus to regulate the physiological status of litchi trees is the main way to promote floral formation and flower retention while the environmental conditions are undesirable.
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