文章摘要
王 敏,刘文睿,何晓明,江 彪,林毓娥,谢大森,彭庆务.节瓜种质资源鉴定评价与利用[J].广东农业科学,2021,48(5):35-41
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Identification, Evaluation and Utilization of Germplasm Resources of Chieh-qua
  
DOI:10.16768/j.issn.1004-874X.2021.05.005
中文关键词: 节瓜  种质资源  农艺性状  抗病性  品种选育
英文关键词: chieh-qua  germplasm resources  agronomic trait  disease resistance  variety breeding
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(32002038);广东省科技计划项目(2019A050520002);广东省对外科技合作平台项目(2020A0505020006);广东省农业科学院农业优势产业学科团队建设项目(202103TD,202114TD)
作者单位
王 敏,刘文睿,何晓明,江 彪,林毓娥,谢大森,彭庆务 广东省农业科学院蔬菜研究所 / 广东省蔬菜新技术研究重点实验室广东 广州 510640 
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中文摘要:
      【目的】广泛收集节瓜种质资源并进行综合鉴评,为创新节瓜种质、培育新品种提供材料基础。【方法】调查节瓜整个生育期 12 个主要农艺性状,检测商品瓜维生素 C、总酸、总糖、可溶性固形物含量,同时利用大田和人工接种相结合方法进行抗枯萎病和疫病性调查。【结果】收集的 87 份节瓜种质资源在瓜形、果皮颜色、雌性、抗病性、营养品质方面差异较大。20 份早熟节瓜种质的平均 Vc 含量 0.47 g/kg、总酸含量1.198 g/kg、可溶性总糖含量 2.68%、糖酸比 2.27、TSS 含量 5.08%。获得兼具强雌性、优质和抗性强的种质 3 份(15号、72 号和 76 号),其中 76 号种质抗枯萎病病情指数为 37.67,达到中抗水平,商品瓜瓜长 16.5 cm,横径 6.3 cm,肉厚 1.4 cm,瓜形指数 2.6,单瓜质量 0.51 kg,植株第 1 雌花节位为 6.1,主蔓 30 节内分枝率 13.6%,雌花率 73.4%。【结论】获得早熟节瓜种质 20 份,其中果皮偏黑色种质 3 份、雌花率大于 70% 的种质 3 份、抗枯萎病强的种质 13 份,营养品质较好的种质 9 份。利用 76 号选育的粤宝节瓜丰产性好、品种优良、抗性强,推广前景广阔。
英文摘要:
      【Objective】The germplasm resources of chieh-qua were collected extensively and evaluated comprehensively in order to provide material basis for the innovation of germplasm and the cultivation of new chiehqua varieties.【Method】Twelve main agronomic traits of the whole growth period of chieh-qua were investigated, and the contents of vitamin C, total acid, total sugar and soluble solids were detected. The resistance to Fusarium wilt and phytophthora blight was investigated through the combination of field and artificial inoculation.【Result】Eighty-seven germplasm resources were collected, and there were significant differences in the shape, pericarp color, female flowers rate, disease resistance and nutritional quality. The average content of Vc in 20 germplasms with early maturity was 0.47 g/kg; total acidity was 1.198 g/kg; soluble total sugar content was 2.68%; ratio of sugar and acid was 2.27 and TSS content was 5.08%. Three germplasms (No. 15, No. 72 and No. 76) with strong female, high quality and strong resistance were obtained, among them, the resistance index to Fusarium wilt of No 76 was 37.67, reaching medium resistance, length was 16.5 cm, diameter was 6.3 cm, section was 1.4 cm, curcumbitate index was 2.6 and single fruit weight was 0.51 kg in. The first female node of the plant was 6.1, the branching rate in 30 nodes of the main vine was 13.6%, and the female flower rate was 73.4%.【Conclusion】We obtained 20 germplasms with early maturity, 3 germplasms with dark pericarp color, 3 germplasms with female flower rate over 70%, 13 germplasms with strong resistance to Fusarium wilt and 9 germplasms with good nutritional quality. The new variety ‘Yuebao’, which was bred with No. 76 germplasm, showed high yield, good variety, strong resistance and broad promotion prospect.
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