文章摘要
赖 多,匡石滋,肖维强,刘传和,贺 涵,邵雪花.有机无机配施减量化肥对蕉柑产量、 品质及土壤养分的影响[J].广东农业科学,2021,48(6):23-29
查看全文    HTML 有机无机配施减量化肥对蕉柑产量、 品质及土壤养分的影响
Effects of Organic-Inorganic Mixed Fertilizers Substituting Chemical Fertilizer on Citrus reticulata Tankan Fruit Yield, Quality and Soil Nutrients
  
DOI:10.16768/j.issn.1004-874X.2021.06.004
中文关键词: 有机无机配方肥  蕉柑  果实品质  土壤养分  化肥减量
英文关键词: organic-inorganic mixed fertilizer  Citrus reticulata Tankan  fruit quality  soil nutrient  fertilizer reduction
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFD0202000);广东省科技创新战略专项资金(高水平农科院建设) - 人才项目(R2017PY-QF001)
作者单位
赖 多,匡石滋,肖维强,刘传和,贺 涵,邵雪花 广东省农业科学院果树研究所 / 农业农村部南亚热带果树生物学与遗传资源利用重点实验室 / 广东省热带亚热带果树研究重点实验室广东 广州 510640 
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中文摘要:
      【目的】探究不同有机无机配施部分替代化肥对蕉柑果实产量、品质和土壤质量的影响,为蕉柑 的化肥减量和提质增效提供实践依据。【方法】采用田间试验法,以习惯施用化肥为对照,采用有机无机肥配 方肥替代方式,设置两组施用钙镁磷肥处理(F1、F2)和两个不施用钙镁磷肥处理(F3、F4),共 5 个处理, 分析比较蕉柑产量、品质及土壤质量对不同施肥处理方式的响应。【结果】与习惯施用化肥相比,有机无机肥 配施替代化肥(16.67%、33.33%、58.33% 和 75%)可提高土壤中 pH 值、有机质和碱解氮含量,增加蕉柑产量 4.4%~12.1%,提高果实可溶性固形物、总糖、维生素 C 含量和糖酸比,降低总酸含量。其中,在施用等量有机 无机配方肥(等量化学氮)情况下,不施用 钙镁磷肥 F3、F4 处理土壤速效磷、有效钙和有效镁含量降低,产量 比 F1、F2 处理分别下降 3.1%、2.2%,但仍比对照增产 9. 0%、4.4%,F3、F4 处理能更有效改善土壤 pH 值、有 机质和碱解氮含量以及果实品质指标,而 F3 处理综合效果优于 F4 处理。【结论】有机无机配方肥替代化肥是 蕉柑园化肥减量增效的有效措施,从兼顾蕉柑产量、品质和成本等方面综合考虑,试验区目前蕉柑减少 钙镁磷 肥投入是可行的,施肥以 50% 有机养分替代无机养分(包括钙镁)为适宜的替代比例。
英文摘要:
      【Objective】This study was to explore the effects of partial substitution of chemical fertilizers with different organic and inorganic fertilizers on fruit yield and quality of Citrus reticulata Tankan and soil nut rients, and to provide practical ba sis for reducing chemical fertilizer and improving quality and efficiency of Tankan.【Method】A field experiment was conducted, with chemical fertilizers as control(CK), the substituting chemical fertilizer experiments with organic-inorganic mixed fertilizers were set up in a total of five fertilization treatments, including two calcium-magnesia phosphate fertilizer groups(F1 and F2)and two groups without calcium-magnesia phosphate fertilizer(F3 and F4), then the responses of Tankan yield, fruit quality and soil nutrients to different fertilization treatments were compared.【Result】 Compared with conventional chemical fertilizer, the organic-inorganic mixed fertilizer substituting chemical fertilizer (16.67%, 33.33%, 58.33% and 75%)could enhance soil pH value, organic matter and alkaline hydrolytic nitrogen contents, increase the Tankan yield by 4.4%-12.1%, improve the contents of soluble solids, total sugar, vitamin C and the sugar-acid ratio, and reduce the total acid content. When applying equal amount of organic-inorganic mixed fertilizer(equal amount of chemical nitrogen), the treatments of F3 and F4 without calcium-magnesia phosphate fertilizers significantly reduced soil available phosphorus, calcium and magnesium contents, and the Tankan production declined but still with an increase by 9.0% and 4.4% compared to CK, while the groups of F3 and F4 could more effectively improve the soil pH, organic matter and alkali solution nitrogen contents and the fruit quality indexes, and the effect of treatment F3 was better than that of F4. 【Conclusion】Organic-inorganic mixed fertilizer substituting chemical fertilizer is an effective measure to reduce the amount of chemical fertilizer and increase the efficiency in Citrus reticulata Tankan orchard. Considering the yield, quality and cost, at present, it is feasible to reduce the input of calcium-magnesia phosphate fertilizer in the test area, and 50% organic nutrients substituting inorganic nutrients(including calcium and magnesium)is a proper replacement ratio for fertilization.
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