文章摘要
贺梅英,赵 萍.广东省林业碳普惠交易现状与对策建议[J].广东农业科学,2021,48(6):145-156
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Forestry Generalized Carbon Trading Status in Guangdong Province and Its Countermeasures and suggestions
  
DOI:10.16768/j.issn.1004-874X.2021.06.019
中文关键词: 林业碳普惠  交易机制  方法学  碳排放  碳市场
英文关键词: forestry generalized carbon  trading mechanism  methodology  carbon emission  carbon market
基金项目:广东省自然科学基金博士启动项目(2018A030310347);国家自然科学基金青年项目(72003069); 广东省普通高校认定类科研项目(2020WTSCX008)
作者单位
贺梅英,赵 萍 华南农业大学经济管理学院广东 广州 510642 
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中文摘要:
      森林是陆地生态系统中最大的碳库,具有吸收二氧化碳、制造氧气、涵养水源、保持水土、调节 气候等功能,对降低大气中温室气体的浓度、缓减全球变暖具有十分重要的作用。第九次森林资源清查的数据 表明,我国森林面积为 2.2 亿 hm2 ,蓄积量为 175.6 亿 m3 ,森林覆盖率达 22.96%、比第八次森林资源清查的数据 上升 1.33 个百分点,这相应地增加了树木的碳汇能力。在 2021 年全国两会上,“ 碳达峰 ”“ 碳中和 ” 首次被写入 政府工作报告并将其纳入生态文明建设整体布局,备受关注。为了达成 “ 中国二氧化碳排放要在 2030 年前达到 峰值,在碳达峰后净排放量要逐步减少,努力争取在 2060 年前实现碳中和 ” 这一目标,我国将在 2021 年启动 全国碳排放权交易市场的建设,并逐步扩大覆盖行业范围,丰富交易品种和方式。基于市场机制的林业碳汇交 易已成为实现 “ 碳达峰 ”“ 碳中和 ” 的重要手段。据实际交易情况来看,相对于 CCER 机制下的林业碳汇项目, 广东省的林业碳普惠交易发展迅速。将 CCER 机制与广东省 PHCER 机制的方法学进行对比,分析广东省林业碳 普惠交易迅速发展的原因,结果表明其在参与主体限制、基线设定与计入期的选择等方面都极大地降低了林业 碳汇的交易风险与交易成本,因而促进了其发展。据此提出相关的政策建议。
英文摘要:
      Forests are the largest carbon reservoirs in terrestrial ecosystems, which absorb carbon dioxide, produce oxygen, conserve water, preserve soil and water, regulate climate and other functions, and play a very important role in reducing the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and mitigating global warming. Data from the Ninth Forest Resources Inventory showed that China’ s forest area was 220 million hm2 , with a stock volume of 17.56 billion m3 , and the forest coverage rate was 22.96%. Compared with the data from the Eighth Forest Resources Inventory, the forest coverage rate increased by 1.33 percentage points, which correspondingly increased the carbon sink capacity of trees. At the NPC and CPPCC sessions in 2021, “carbon peak” and “carbon neutrality” were written in the government work report for the first time and included in the overall layout of ecological civilization construction, which attracted much attention. In other words, China’ s carbon dioxide emissions must reach a peak before 2030, after which its net emissions must be gradually reduced, striving to achieve carbon neutrality by 2060. In order to further achieve the goal, China will start the construction of a national carbon emission trading market in 2021, and gradually expand its coverage of the industries, enriching the types and methods of trading. Forestry carbon sink trading based on market mechanisms has become an important means to achieve “carbon peak” and “carbon neutrality”. According to the actual transaction, compared with the forestry carbon sink project under China Certified Emission Reduction(CCER)mechanism, the forestry generalized carbon trading in Guangdong Province has developed rapidly. Therefore, this paper compares the methodology of the CCER mechanism with the PHCER mechanism in Guangdong Province to analyze the reasons for the rapid development of the forestry generalized carbon trading in Guangdong Province. The results show that it has greatly reduced the transaction risks and costs of forestry carbon sink in terms of participant restrictions, baseline setting and crediting period selection, thus promoted its development. Finally, relevant policy suggestions are put forward accordingly.
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