文章摘要
李 祥,王永平,柯希恒,孙喜军,郭学军,褚春年,王耀凤,胡月莉,曾 桥.果树枝条掩埋发酵最佳模式研究[J].广东农业科学,2021,48(8):83-89
查看全文    HTML 果树枝条掩埋发酵最佳模式研究
Study on the Best Mode for Burying Fermentation of Fruit Tree Branches
  
DOI:10.16768/j.issn.1004-874X.2021.08.010
中文关键词: 果树枝条  掩埋发酵方式  枝条腐解率  果园 CO2 浓度  土壤温度  水分含量
英文关键词: fruit trees branch  branch burying fermentation  decomposition rate of branch  CO2 concentration in orchard  soil temperature  moisture content
基金项目:陕西省创新能力支撑计划项目(2019XY-03);陕西省重点研发计划项目(2019ZDLNY01-05-02);广西重点研发计划项目(桂科 AB19259016);陕西省林业科学院科技创新计划专项(SXLK2020-0218)
作者单位
李 祥,王永平,柯希恒,孙喜军,郭学军,褚春年,王耀凤,胡月莉,曾 桥 1. 陕西科技大学化学与化工学院 / 中国轻工业轻工助剂重点实验室陕西 西安 710021 2. 陕西农产品加工技术研究院陕西 西安 710021 3. 西安市农业技术推广中心陕西 西安 710061 4. 白水县苹果试验站陕西 白水 7156005. 西安市农机监理与推广总站陕西 西安 710065 
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中文摘要:
      【目的】为了减少果树枝条肥料化过程中枝条的捡拾、搬运、粉碎、堆肥、施肥环节的劳动力 消耗,降低枝条肥料化成本,探索农村劳动力缺乏大背景下省时、省力的枝条肥料化技术。【方法】采用开 沟机在苹果园作业行内开宽 30~35 cm、深 35~40 cm 的深沟,将果树枝条、落叶、枯草填入沟内,添加微生物 菌剂、尿素、土壤调理剂后覆土回填技术(回填深度 8~10 cm),研究枝条掩埋发酵模式对枝条腐解率、果树 腐烂病、轮纹病发病率、果园 CO2 浓度、土壤温度、水分含量的影响。【结果】(1)枝条掩埋发酵枝条腐解 率随时间推移呈由小变大再变小的趋势,按 75 kg/hm2 自带营养的微生物菌剂、50 kg/hm2 尿素及 20 kg/hm2 土 壤调理剂的比例(处理 2),周年腐解率最高、为 40.1%。(2)处理组果树腐烂病、轮纹病的发病率低于对照, 以处理 2 果树腐烂病、轮纹病的发病率最低,分别为 0 和 15.2%。(3)处理组近气层 CO2 浓度显著高于对照, 以处理 2 近气层 CO2 的浓度最高、为 550 μmol/mol。(4)各处理寒冷时土壤温度高于地表温度,炎热时土壤 温度低于地表温度,以处理 2 较为显著;处理组土壤的水分含量高于对照组。【结论】微生物菌剂、尿素、 土壤调理剂处理可加速果树枝条腐解,增加近气层 CO2 的浓度;枝条掩埋发酵技术能降低苹果腐烂病、轮纹 病的发病率;果树枝条掩埋发酵具有缓和土壤温度、蓄水保墒的作用。处理 2 为最佳果树枝条掩埋发酵方式。
英文摘要:
      【Objective】In order to reduce the labor consumption of picking up, transporting, crushing, composting and fertilizing of branches in the process of branch fertilizer, a time-saving and labor-saving branch fertilizer technology under the background of rural labor shortage was explored.【Method】Deep ditches with width of 30-35 cm and depth of 35- 40 cm were opened in the operation line by using ditching machine, the branches, fallen leaves and withered grasses were filled in the ditches, and then the microbial agent, urea and soil conditioner were added to cover the soil for backfilling(the backfilling depth was 8-10 cm). The effects of the mode of burying fermentation on the decomposition rate of branches, the incidence of rotten disease and ring rot disease of fruit trees, the CO2 concentration of orchard, the soil temperature and the moisture content were studied.【Result】(1)The decomposition rate of buried and fermented branches showed a trend of decrease-increase-decrease with time passing. According to the proportion of 75 kg/hm2 nutrient microbial agent, 50 kg/ hm2 urea and 20 kg/hm2 soil conditioner per hectare, it was found that the annual decomposition rate of treatment 2 was the highest, reaching 40.1%.(2)The incidence of rotten disease and ring rot disease of fruit trees in treatment group was lower than that in CK. The incidences of rotten disease and ring rot disease of fruit trees of treatment 2 were lowest, which were 0 and 15.2% respectively.(3)The concentration of CO2 in the treatment group was significantly higher than that in CK, and the concentration of CO2 of treatment 2 was highest, reaching 550 μmol/mol.(4)Among different treatments, the soil temperature was higher than the surface temperature in cold climate, and lower than the surface temperature in hot climate, especially in treatment 2; and the soil moisture content of treatment group was higher than that of CK.【Conclusion】Microbial agent, urea and soil conditioner have the synergistic effect of accelerating the decomposition of branches and increasing the concentration of CO2 in near-atmosphere layer. The branch burying fermentation technology can reduce the incidence of rotten disease and ring rot disease of fruit trees. Branch burying fermentation can buffer soil temperature and conserve water. Treatment 2 is the best way of branch burying fermentation.
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