文章摘要
徐 江,刘 明,彭洋洋,杨秋明,何焕清.广东地区草菇种质资源与产业发展现状[J].广东农业科学,2021,48(9):98-107
查看全文    HTML 广东地区草菇种质资源与产业发展现状
Status of Germplasm Resources and Industry Development of Straw Mushroom in Guangdong
  
DOI:10.16768/j.issn.1004-874X.2021.09.011
中文关键词: 草菇  野生资源  栽培品种  产业调查  发展建议
英文关键词: straw mushroom  wild germplasm resource  cultivated variety  industry investigation  development proposal
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(31900013);广东省农业科学院院长基金(201814);广东省乡村振兴战略专项(2019);广东省重点领域研发计划项目(2019B020214001)
作者单位
徐 江,刘 明,彭洋洋,杨秋明,何焕清  
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中文摘要:
      了解广东地区草菇种质资源分布、利用特点和产业发展现状,为高效、科学可持续开发利用广东地区草菇种质资源,实现本地草菇栽培产业菌种质量提升提供参考。采用文献查阅、野外采集与种植场或市场实地调研相结合的方法,调查并分析广东地区小包脚菇属(Volvariella Speg.)资源的组成和分布特点,草菇栽培种质资源的生产利用现状、存在问题及产业发展趋势。广东极其适合小包脚菇类群的发生,已报道的小包脚菇类群多达 20 余种,占全国已报道小包脚菇种类的 70% 以上,目前利用的主要有草菇(Volvariella volvacea)、银丝草菇(V. bombycina)等,其余野生资源有待进一步研究开发;本地区也是国内最主要的草菇栽培和消费区域,栽培历史悠久,然而栽培菌种资源混乱、菌种生产标准缺乏、没有专业的菌种生产企业等,珠三角及周边区域的草菇生产企业、种植户分散,缺少规模化的草菇生产导致该地区草菇产业竞争力难以提升。加快本地区野生小包脚菇资源的开发利用,发展草菇优良菌种的菌株提纯复壮、良种选育和高效培育技术研究,形成地区特色种质资源库,制定草菇优质菌种生产标准、培育专业的草菇菌种生产企业是当前广东地区草菇产业发展的重要方向。
英文摘要:
      The study was carried out to understand the distribution, utilization characteristics and industrial development status of straw mushroom germplasm resources in Guangdong, and then provide references for the high efficient, scientific and sustainable development and utilization of straw mushroom germplasm resources to improve the strain quality of the straw mushroom cultivation industry in this region.The species composition and distribution characteristics of Volvariella Speg. resources, the production and utilization status, existing problems and industrial development trend of straw mushroom cultivation were investigated through literature review, field collection and field (plantation or market) survey methods. Guangdong suitable for the occurrence of Volvariella species. There have been more than 20 species reported, accounting for over 70% of the reported species in China. Currently, the main ones used are Volvariella volvacea, V. bombycina, etc., and other wild resources need to be further researched. At the same time, Guangdong is also the most important straw mushroom cultivation and consumption area with long cultivation history in China. However, there is chaos in cultivated strain resources, lack of strain production standards, and no professional strain production enterprises. As the scattered distribution of straw mushroom production enterprises and growers in the Pearl River Delta and its surrounding areas, the lack of large-scale straw mushroom production has made it difficult to improve the competitiveness of the straw mushroom industry in this region. It is recommended to accelerate the development and utilization of wild Volvariella Speg. germplasm resources in this region, develop strain purification and rejuvenation, selection and breeding of high-quality straw mushrooms, and high-efficiency cultivation techniques, and form a germplasm resource bank with regional features. The formulation of superior strain production standards and cultivation of professional mushroom strain production enterprises are the important directions for the development of straw mushroom industry in Guangdong currently.
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