文章摘要
曹 健,张白鸽,陈 潇,宋 钊,余超然,何裕志.蔬菜精准自动灌溉技术模型应用研究进展[J].广东农业科学,2021,48(9):116-123
查看全文    HTML 蔬菜精准自动灌溉技术模型应用研究进展
Research Progress in Application of Precise Automatic Irrigation Technology Model for Vegetables
  
DOI:10.16768/j.issn.1004-874X.2021.09.013
中文关键词: 蔬菜  灌溉  模型  自动化  墒情
英文关键词: vegetable  irrigation  model  automation  soil moisture content
基金项目:佛山市财政专项资金- 2019 年度共建广东农业科技示范市项目;广州市科技计划项目民生科技攻关计划项目(201803020023);广东省农业科学院院长基金(202043);财政部和农业农村部:国家现代农业产业技术体系项目
作者单位
曹 健,张白鸽,陈 潇,宋 钊,余超然,何裕志  
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中文摘要:
      根据蔬菜根层土壤对水分的需求特点分析蔬菜精准自动灌溉技术模型和灌溉指标,提出蔬菜精准自动灌溉技术的关键措施。针对蔬菜自动灌溉技术及设施装备在生产应用中存在的问题,分析了蔬菜精准灌溉技术的理论基础,提出蔬菜灌溉应该在遵循 SPAC 系统模型的水分传输理论基础上,结合蔬菜根层分布特点系统确定菜田土壤墒情监测调控的精准指标,参照蔬菜生长需求及其不同水分条件下的形态特征或生理指标,构建与菜田土壤水分管理相适应的自动灌溉管理决策;指出蔬菜灌溉需要根据蔬菜种类及其生长发育时期建立确保蔬菜优质高效生产的灌溉管理技术方案,结合根层土壤墒情和具体气候环境条件,以及蔬菜产量和品质要求等确定具体的灌溉管理指标。蔬菜自动灌溉控制技术需要建立完善的土壤墒情管理系统装置,制定精准调控土壤墒情管理的指标,建立完善的自动灌溉管理关键措施。应用蔬菜自动灌溉控制技术能适时适量满足蔬菜生长发育对水分的需求,对促进蔬菜优质高效生产、提高水分利用效率、防止水肥流失有重要作用。
英文摘要:
      According to the water demand characteristics of vegetable root layer soil, the model and irrigation index of precise automatic irrigation technology for vegetables are analyzed, and the key measures of precise automatic irrigation technology for vegetables are proposed. In order to solve the problems in the application of vegetable automatic irrigation technology and equipment in agricultural production, the theoretical basis of precise irrigation technology for vegetables is analyzed. As vegetable crops should follow the SPAC system model based on moisture transfer theory, according to the characteristics of vegetable root distribution system, the precise index of soil moisture content monitoring and control in vegetable plantation are concluded. Moreover, considering the vegetable growth requirements and their morphological characteristics or physiological indexes of different moisture conditions, the strategy for automatic irrigation management was established to meet the needs of vegetable plantation soil moisture management. It is pointed out that an irrigation management technology scheme needs to be established to ensure high-quality and efficient production of vegetables according to the vegetable species and their growth and development period, and to determine specific irrigation management indicators based on root soil moisture and specific climatic conditions as well as vegetable yield and quality requirements. In regard of the automatic irrigation control technology, it is needed to establish an excellent management system of soil moisture device, develop indexes for precise regulation of soil moisture management and establish perfect key measures for automatic irrigation management. The application of automatic irrigation control technology for vegetables can timely and appropriately meet the water demand of vegetable growth and development, which plays an important role in promoting high-quality and efficient vegetable production, improving water use efficiency and preventing the loss of water and fertilizers.
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