文章摘要
胡香玉,   钟旭华,林 绿,胡学应,黄农荣,文喜贤,徐世宏,吕仲贤,梁开明,潘俊峰,刘彦卓,傅友强.水稻“三控”施肥技术在南方稻区的推广应用[J].广东农业科学,2021,48(10):100-110
查看全文    HTML 水稻“三控”施肥技术在南方稻区的推广应用
Promotion and Application of the“Three Controls”Technology for Rice in Southern China
  
DOI:10.16768/j.issn.1004-874X.2021.10.011
中文关键词: 水稻  “三控”施肥  减肥控害  抗倒高产  节本增收  推广方法
英文关键词: rice  “Three Controls” technology  fertilizer reduction and pest control  lodging resistance and high yield  cost-saving and income-increasing  promotion method
基金项目:广东省农业科学院国家级科技成果奖励培育专项(粤农科研﹝ 2018 ﹞ 45 号);广东省现代农业产业技术体系水稻产业创新团队项目(2021KJ105);广东省农业科学院科技创新战略专项资金(高水平农科院建设)-“十四五”学科团队建设项目(202112TD);广东省水稻育种新技术重点实验室项目(2020B1212060047)
作者单位
胡香玉,   钟旭华,林 绿,胡学应,黄农荣,文喜贤,徐世宏,吕仲贤,梁开明,潘俊峰,刘彦卓,傅友强  
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中文摘要:
      【目的】水稻“三控”施肥技术是一种高产高效施肥及配套技术体系,具有高产稳产、节本增收、 安全环保、操作简便等特点,近 10 多年来在南方稻区得到广泛应用。总结分析该技术在南方稻区的应用效果和 推广方法,可为其进一步推广应用提供参考。【方法】通过汇总 2008 年以来广东、广西、江西、浙江、江苏、 福建等省区公开发表的 47 篇水稻“三控”施肥技术的试验示范论文数据,综合分析其应用效果。【结果】与农 民习惯栽培相比,水稻“三控”施肥技术的氮肥用量平均减少 29.5 kg/hm2 、减幅为 16.0%,氮磷钾总施肥量平均 减少 11.6%;水稻产量平均提高 626.3 kg/hm2 、增幅为 8.8%;氮肥偏生产力平均提高 27.3%;无效分蘖数平均减 少 89.0 万 hm2 、减幅为 37.7%,成穗率提高 9.7 个百分点;纹枯病、稻飞虱和稻纵卷叶螟为害分别减少 50.7%、 28.6% 和 46.6%,倒伏大幅减轻;平均增收 1 902.0 元 /hm2 。从建立全国性技术推广协作网、整合资源发挥政策 引导和激励作用、建立稳定的示范基地多措并举助推技术落地、充分利用现代科技手段加速技术推广等方面, 总结了水稻“三控”施肥技术的推广经验和启示。【结论】水稻“三控”施肥技术能稳定实现水稻减肥增产增收, 其推广经验和方法可供借鉴,具有广阔的应用前景。
英文摘要:
      【Objective】The “Three Controls” technology(TC)is a high-yield and high fertilizer efficiency technology system, which is high and stable yielding, cost-saving and income-increasing, safe and environmental friendly and easy-touse. It has been widely applied in rice regions of Southern China in recent 10 years. In order to provide futher application of TC, the application effect and demon stration and extension methods of this technology in southern rice region were summarized and analyzed.【Method】This papersummarized the data from 47 published papers about the trial and demonstration of TC in Guangdong, Guangxi, Jiangxi, Zhejiang, Jiangsu and Fujian provinces since 2008, analyzed the application results of TC comprehensively and summarized the promotion experience and enlightenment of TC.【Result】Compared with farmer’s practice(FP), TC averagely reduced nitrogen input by 29.5 kg/hm2 or 16.0%. Total fertilizer input (including nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) was reduced by 11.6%. Grain yield of rice was increased by 626.3 kg/hm2 on average, with an increase of 8.8%. Nitrogen partial factor productivity increased by 27.3%. Compared with FP, TC reduced the number of unproductive tillers by 37.7% averagely(89.0×104 hm2 ), while the productive tiller percentage was increased by 9.7%. The occurrence of sheath blight, rice planthopper and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis under TC was reduced by 50.7%, 28.6% and 46.6%, respectively. Moreover, lodging was considerably reduced by TC. By use of TC, farmers could averagely achieve an increased income of 1 902.0 yuan per hectare. The promotion experience and enlightenment of TC were summarized from the aspects of establishing a national technology promotion and collaboration network, integrating resources to give full play of policy guidance and incentives, establishing stable demonstration bases, and making use of modern methods, etc.【Condusion】The “Three Controls” technology can stably reduce fertilizerrate, increase rice yield and income. It’s popularization experience and methods can be used for reference. Finally, the “Three Controls” technology has broad application prospects.
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