文章摘要
黄连喜,王钰静,黄 庆,魏 岚,李 翔,陈伟盛,黄玉芬,刘忠珍.两种玉米秸秆还田方式对甜玉米生长、品质及土壤性状的影响[J].广东农业科学,2021,48(11):65-73
查看全文    HTML 两种玉米秸秆还田方式对甜玉米生长、品质及土壤性状的影响
Effects of Two Ways of Cornstalk Returning on Soil Properties, Growth and Quality of Sweet Corn
  
DOI:10.16768/j.issn.1004-874X.2021.11.009
中文关键词: 秸秆直接还田  秸秆炭化还田  土壤性状  玉米产量  玉米品质
英文关键词: cornstalk returning directly  cornstalk returning after carbonization  soil property  corn yield  corn quality
基金项目:江门市科技计划项目基础与应用基础重点项目(2020030103030008571);广东省现代农业产业技术体系创新团队建设专项资金(2021KJ109);2018 年广州国家现代农业产业科技创新中心创建项目(粤农农函〔2019〕451);广东省农业科学院创新基金产业专项(202146)
作者单位
黄连喜,王钰静,黄 庆,魏 岚,李 翔,陈伟盛,黄玉芬,刘忠珍  
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中文摘要:
      【目的】探明玉米秸秆直接还田及炭化处理后还田两种农艺措施对土壤理化性状、玉米生长及品质提升的效果。【方法】设置对照(CK)、玉米秸秆还田(T1)、玉米秸秆炭化还田(T2)3 个处理,在广州市南沙区横沥镇连续进行两茬甜玉米田间小区试验。【结果】T1、T2 处理可提高玉米土壤 pH 值、土壤有效态氮磷钾及有机碳含量,显著提升玉米粒维生素 C 和可溶糖含量,但对玉米的产量无显著影响。第 1 茬玉米试验中,T1、T2 处理对玉米粒维生素 C 含量的提升效果分别为 16.5% 及 25.9%,对可溶糖含量的提升效果分别为 20.7%及 22.3%,对土壤有机碳含量分别提升 10.3% 及 10.0%,对土壤有效态氮磷钾含量、土壤 pH 值及玉米株高均没有显著影响。第 2 茬玉米试验中,T1、T2 处理分别显著提升玉米粒维生素 C 含量 10.3% 及 1.7%,可溶糖含量24.7% 及 10.6%,显著提升土壤 pH 值 0.33、0.23 个单位,显著提升土壤速效钾含量 16.8% 及 36.0%,降低土壤有机碳含量 1.7% 及显著提升有机碳含量 3.6%,分别提升玉米株高 0.3% 及 4.59%。【结论】秸秆炭化后还田处理对土壤理化性状及玉米生长的提升效果强于秸秆直接还田处理。玉米秸秆炭化还田对玉米品质的提升速度快于玉米秸秆直接还田,但效果的持续性则为玉米秸秆直接还田优于炭化还田处理,两种玉米秸秆还田措施对玉米产量的影响均在短时间内难以得到体现。
英文摘要:
      【Objective】The study was carried out to investigate the effects of two agronomic measures of cornstalk returning directly and after carbonization on soil physical and chemical properties, corn growth and quality improvement.【Method】Plot experiments of two crops of sweet corn including three treatments, the control(CK), cornstalk returning directly(T1)and cornstalk returning after carbonization(T2)were carried out in Hengli Town, Nansha District, Guangzhou City.【Results】As compared with CK treatment, T1 and T2 treatments could increase soil pH value, soil available N, P, K and organic carbon content, significantly increase the contents of vitamin C and soluble sugar in corn kernels, but had no significant effect on corn yield. In the first-crop corn experiment, the effect of T1 and T2 treatments on the content of vitamin C in corn kernels was increased by 16.5% and 25.9%, the content of soluble sugar was increased by 20.7% and 22.3%, and the content of soil organic carbon was increased by 10.3% and 10.0%, respectively. There were no significant effects on soil available N, P and K contents, soil pH value and corn plant height between T1(T2)and CK treatment. In the second-crop corn experiment, T1 and T2 treatments significantly increased the content of vitamin C in corn kernels by 10.3% and 1.7%, soluble sugar content by 24.7% and 10.6%, soil pH value by 0.33 and 0.23 units, and soil available potassium content by 16.8% and 36.0%, respectively. The soil organic carbon content was decreased by 1.7% under T1 and significantly increased by 3.6% under T2. The plant heights of corn were increased by 0.3% and 4.59% under T1 and T2, respectively.【Conclusion】The improved effect of cornstalk returning after carbonization on soil physical and chemical properties and corn growth was stronger than that of cornstalk returning directly. The speed of improvement of corn quality by cornstalk returning after carbonization was faster than that of cornstalk returning directly, but the continuity of the improved effect of cornstalk returning directly was better than that of cornstalk returning after carbonization. The effects of the two kinds of cornstalk returning measures on the corn yield are difficult to be reflected in a short time.
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