文章摘要
李小凤,熊 婷,李余良.2009—2019 年广东省甜玉米区试品种主要性状选育进展[J].广东农业科学,2021,48(12):1-8
查看全文    HTML 2009—2019 年广东省甜玉米区试品种主要性状选育进展
Breeding Progress of Main Characters of Sweet Corn Varieties in Guangdong Regional Trials from 2009 to 2019
  
DOI:10.16768/j.issn.1004-874X.2021.12.001
中文关键词: 广东  甜玉米品种  区域试验  性状分析  变化趋势  育种进展
英文关键词: Guangdong  sweet corn varieties  regional trials  trait analysis  trend  breeding progress
基金项目:广东省现代农业产业技术体系创新团队项目(2021KJ106);广东省农业科学院农业优势产业学科团队建设项目(202115TD,202121TD);广东省现代种业提升项目(粤财农〔2021〕73 号)
作者单位
李小凤,熊 婷,李余良  
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中文摘要:
      【目的】了解近年广东省甜玉米区域试验品种的变化规律,探索甜玉米的育种进展,进一步提高 我国甜玉米育种的水平。【方法】根据2009—2019年广东省甜玉米区试品种多点试验数据,分析参试品种的农 艺性状、经济性状、抗病性及综合品质等主要性状表现。【结果】11年间参试品种株高平均增加15 cm左右,穗 位高总体稳定在68 cm左右,平均茎粗趋向稳定接近2.0 cm;穗长也有一定程度的增加,平均增幅为1.5 cm,穗粗 增加趋势较为明显,表明注重大穗型品种的选育;区试品种产量在波动中呈现较快的上升趋势,育成品种中高 产品种占据较大比例;抗小斑病育种取得较好的成果,多数品种对小斑病的抗性级别达中抗以上,但近3年来对 纹枯病的抗性一般,部分品种感病,抗性级别降低;优质品种占参试品种的比例达30%以上,对品质的选育也 在加强。【结论】连续11年广东省甜玉米区域试验表明,甜玉米主要性状的改良取得一定成效,相关农艺性状 在不断探索协调产量构成各因素之间的关系,促使产量逐步提高,优质抗病品种比例有所提升,当今甜玉米育 种在朝高产、优质、抗病抗倒、适应性强等复合性目标迈进,注重品种转化及推广应用,促进了我国甜玉米产 业的快速发展。
英文摘要:
      【Objective】To understand the changes of sweet corn varieties in regional trials of Guangdong Province in recent years, the study explored the progress of sweet corn breeding with a view to further improve the level of sweet corn breeding in China.【Method】According to the multi-site data of the sweet corn regional test varieties in Guangdong Province in 2009-2019, the main traits of the tested varieties, such as agronomic traits, economic traits, disease resistance and comprehensive quality were analyzed.【Result】Over the 11 years, the results showed that the plant height of the tested varieties increased by about 15 cm on average, the ear height was about 68 cm, the average stem thickness was nearly 2.0 cm. The ear length also increased by 1.5 cm on average, and the increasing trend of ear thickness was obvious, indicating that emphasis was placed on the selection and breeding of large-spike varieties. The yield of regional test varieties showed a rapid upward trend in fluctuations. The bred varieties with high-yield accounted for a larger proportion. Most varieties were resistant to southern leaf blight, and the resistance grade could reach medium and above, and the breeding for resistance to southern leaf blight achieved good results. However, in the past 3 years, the varieties showed common resistance to sheath blight, and some varieties were susceptible with reduced resistance level. The proportion of high-quality varieties account for the total number of tested varieties is more than 30%, indicating that the selection and breeding of quality is being strengthened. 【Conclusion】The 11 consecutive years of regional trials of sweet corn in Guangdong Province have shown that the improvement of the main traits of sweet corn has achieved certain results. The relevant agronomic traits have been continuously explored to coordinate the relationship between various factors, so that the yield can be gradually increased, and the high-quality disease-resistant varieties be improved. Nowadays, sweet corn breeding is advancing towards the compound goals of high yield, high quality, disease resistance, lodging resistance, and strong adaptability, focusing on variety transformation and promotion and application to boost the rapid development of sweet corn industry in China.
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