文章摘要
陈小平,鲁  清,洪彦彬,李少雄,梁炫强.花生基因组学在遗传育种中的研究进展[J].广东农业科学,2021,48(12):33-43
查看全文    HTML 花生基因组学在遗传育种中的研究进展
Research Progress in Genomics and Breeding of Peanut
  
DOI:10.16768/j.issn.1004-874X.2021.12.005
中文关键词: 花生  基因组  表型  性状关联  分子育种  全基因组选择
英文关键词: peanut  genome  phenotyping  trait association  molecular breeding  whole genome selection
基金项目:广东省重点领域研发计划项目(2020B020219003);广东省农业科学院农业优势产业学科团队建设项目(202104TD);财政部和农业农村部:国家现代农业产业技术体系项目(CARS-13);国家自然科学基金(31771841,31801401);广东省自然科学基金(2021A1515010811);广州市科技计划项目(201904010190);广东省农业科学院中青年学科带头人培养项目(R2020PY-JG005,R2020PY-JX004)
作者单位
陈小平,鲁  清,洪彦彬,李少雄,梁炫强  
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中文摘要:
      花生是我国重要的油料和经济作物,突破传统育种的盲目性和低效率仍是花生育种面临的巨大挑 战。近年来花生基因组学研究取得显著进展,四倍体野生种、栽培种及其二倍体祖先种基因组序列相继发表, 大量 SSR 和 SNP 标记开发利用,花生遗传图谱标记密度不断增加,高通量表型鉴定和基因分型技术广泛应用, 越来越多重要农艺性状相关 QTL 被挖掘定位,以全基因组选择为代表的大数据驱动的多组学育种技术崭露头角。 丰富的花生基因组资源促进了基因型与表型的关联,加快花生分子育种的发展,育种家已通过分子辅助技术成 功选育了具有目标性状的花生种质。花生传统育种的关键在于表型分析的准确性和可靠性,育种过程缺乏对基 因型的充分鉴定和利用。而花生基因组资源、常规育种及分子育种的结合与并行发展必将推动基因组学在花生 育种中的深入应用,使基因组学研究成果真正进入田间和市场,充分体现基因组学研究的价值和意义。
英文摘要:
      Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important oil material and cash crop in China. However, the blindness and low-efficiency of traditional breeding methods have remained great challenges for peanut breeding. In recent years, remarkable progresses have been made in researches of peanut genomics, and it has achieved several key milestones in peanut genomics including genome sequencing of wild tetraploids, cultivated tetraploids and its wild diploid progenitors, tremendous increase in the development of molecular markers like SSR and SNP, construction of high-density genetic maps, wide application of high-throughput phenotyping and genotyping techniques, identification of a large number of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) , as well as emergence of genomic selection representing future breeding trends at the whole genome level. Abundant peanut genomic resources have promoted the association of genotype and phenotype, and accelerated the development of peanut molecular breeding. Breeders have successfully selected peanut germplasm with target traits through molecular-assisted technology. The key to traditional peanut breeding is the accuracy and reliability of phenotypic analysis, however, there is a lack of adequate identification and utilization of genotypes in the breeding process. The combination and parallel development of peanut genomic resources, conventional breeding and molecular breeding will certainly promote the in-depth application of genomics in peanut breeding, so that the results of genomics research can truly enter the field and the market, fully reflecting the value and significance of genomics research.
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