文章摘要
钱佳宇,江解增,张永仙,张 昊,李东晟,刘 辉.小麦秸秆截段高量还田对大棚夏秋茬蕹菜产量及土壤肥力的影响[J].广东农业科学,2020,47(4):30-38
小麦秸秆截段高量还田对大棚夏秋茬蕹菜产量及土壤肥力的影响
Effect of Wheat Straw Cutting and High Quantity Returning to the Field on the Yield of Water Spinach and Soil Fertility in Summer and Autumn in Greenhouse
  
DOI:10.16768/j.issn.1004-874X.2020.04.005
中文关键词: 切段小麦秸秆  蕹菜  产量  腐解率  土壤性质
英文关键词: cut wheat straw  water spinach  yield  decomposition rate  soil properties
基金项目:江苏省科技攻关项目(BE2017380);江苏现代农业(蔬菜)产业技术体系项目(JATS2019455)
作者单位
钱佳宇,江解增,张永仙,张 昊,李东晟,刘 辉 扬州大学水生蔬菜研究室江苏 扬州 225009 
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中文摘要:
      【目的】探究截段小麦秸秆高量还田的腐解效应。【方法】利用设施水生蔬菜田的高温高湿加有氧发酵环境促进秸秆腐解的原理,采用 37.50 t/hm2 和 22.50 t/hm2 的高量覆盖 10 cm 短规格小麦秸秆,淹水栽培蕹菜(Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.),测定土表水层电导率及氧化还原电位、小麦秸秆腐解率、蕹菜产量、蕹菜植株品质及土壤性质等指标。【结果】处理土表水层电导率均表现为前期迅速上升,37.50 t/hm2 与 22.50 t/hm2 处理分别于第 5 d 和第 2 d 达最大值 1 653 μs/cm 和 2 220 μs/cm,土表水层氧化还原电位则表现为前期快速下降,分别于第 3 d 和第 8 d 达到最低值 -198 mV 和 -212 mV。经 182 d 腐解,37.50 t/hm2 与 22.50 t/hm2 覆盖量的腐解率分别为 63.91%、91.00%。22.50 t/hm2 处理较不覆盖小麦秸秆(对照)增产 5%,且化肥减施 14.30%,达到减化肥增产的效果。37.50 t/hm2 处理土壤硝态氮降幅最大、达 43.69%,且两个处理均能显著补充土壤中的 P、K 元素,能有效改良土壤性质。【结论】高量小麦秸秆截段还田,不仅能提高作物产量,还能补充土壤中磷、钾元素,减少化肥的施用,同时能有效缓解土壤盐渍化。
英文摘要:
      【Objective】The study was to explore the decomposition effects of high quantity of cut wheat straws returned to the field.【Method】By using the principle of high temperature, high humidity and aerobic fermentation environment to promote the decomposition of straws in the protected aquatic vegetable field, this experiment covered 10 cm short specification wheat straws in high quantity with 37.50 t/hm2 and 22.50 t/hm2, and cultivated water spinach(Ipomoea aquatica Forsk). The electrical conductivity and redox potential of soil surface water layer, the decomposition rate of wheat straws, the yield of water spinach, the quality of water spinach plant and the related indexes of soil properties were measured.【Result】The conductivity of the treated soil surface water layer increased rapidly in the early stage, and the maximum values of 37.50 t/hm2 treatment and 22.50 t/hm2 treatment were 1 653 μs/cm and 2 220 μs/cm on the 5th and 2nd day, respectively. The redox potential of the soil surface water layer decreased rapidly in the early stage, with the minimum values of -198 mV and -212 mV on the 3rd and 8th day, respectively. After 182 days, the decomposition rates of 37.50 t/hm2 treatment and 22.50 t/hm2 treatment were 63.91% and 91.00%, respectively. The yield of 22.50 t/hm2 straw mulching treatment increased 5.00% compared with that of the control, and such treatment reduced the application of chemical fertilizer by 14.30%, achieving the effects of reducing chemical fertilizer and increasing production. Under 37.50 t/hm2 treatment, the decrease of soil nitrate nitrogen was the maximum, reaching 43.69%. Both treatments could significantly supplement P and K elements in soil, and effectively improve the properties of soil.【Conclusion】High quantity of wheat straws returned to the field can not only improve crop yield and reduce the application of chemical fertilizer, but also supplement the P and K elements in soil and effectively alleviate the soil salinization.
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