文章摘要
侯宪文 1,2,张 军1,3,符瑞益 1,李焕苓 1,李光义 1,2.荔枝剪枝还田腐解及养分释放特征研究[J].广东农业科学,2020,47(4):77-84
荔枝剪枝还田腐解及养分释放特征研究
Study on Characteristics of Decomposing and Nutrients Releasing of Litchi Cuttings Returned to the Field
  
DOI:10.16768/j.issn.1004-874X.2020.04.011
中文关键词: 荔枝  土壤  腐解特征  养分释放特征  土壤肥力
英文关键词: litchi  soil  characteristics of decomposing  characteristics of nutrients releasing  soil fertility
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFD0202101);海南省重点研发计划项目(ZDYF2018236)
作者单位
侯宪文 1,2,张 军1,3,符瑞益 1,李焕苓 1,李光义 1,2 1. 中国热带农业科学院环境与植物保护研究所海南 海口 5711012. 农业农村部儋州农业环境科学观测实验站海南 儋州 5717373. 米易县农业农村局四川 米易 617200 
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中文摘要:
      【目的】研究荔枝剪枝在土壤中的腐解和养分释放特征,为荔枝剪枝还田利用和有机替代技术的研究提供理论基础,也为其他果树剪枝的合理利用提供参考。【方法】以粉碎荔枝枝条和叶片为供试材料,应用网袋法研究其在覆土和覆盖处理下干物质、粗纤维、全氮、全磷、全钾质量变化。【结果】荔枝枝条和叶片在处理 0~30 d 腐解速率快,处理 30 d 时,荔枝枝条在覆土和覆盖处理下质量累积减少率分别为 20.8%、13.9%;荔枝叶片在覆土和覆盖处理下质量累积减少率分别为 27.8%、20.9%;荔枝枝条处理 240 d 质量累积减少率分别为 51.7%、38.8%,荔枝叶片处理 150 d 质量累积减少率分别为 55.2%、42.5%,表现为覆土 > 覆盖。在整个腐解过程中,荔枝枝条的养分释放速率表现为 K>P>N,荔枝叶片的养分释放速率表现为 K>N>P。荔枝枝条和叶片中的全钾在覆土处理下累积释放率均达 90% 以上。【结论】荔枝剪枝还田利用,可以采用将荔枝剪枝粉碎后先覆盖果园再适时翻耕入土的管理方式,要适当减少基肥中钾、磷肥用量,适时补充氮肥。
英文摘要:
      【Objective】The study was conducted to explore the characteristics of decomposing and nutrients releasing of litchi cuttings returned to field under soil covering and mulching in order to provide a theoretical basis for the utilization of litchi cuttings returned to field and the researches on organic alternative technology, and to provide references for the rational utilization of cuttings from other fruit trees.【Method】The crushed litchi branches and leaves were used as test materials, and the mass changes of dry matter, crude fiber, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and total potassium in the crushed branches and leaves under soil covering and mulching were studied by using net bag method.【Result】The decomposition rates of litchi branches and leaves were fast in 30 days after being returned to field. On the 30th day, the cumulative mass reduction rates of litchi branches under the treatments of soil covering and mulching were 20.8% and 13.9%, respectively, and the cumulative mass reduction rates of litchi leaves under the treatments of soil covering and mulching were 27.8% and 20.9%, respectively. The cumulative mass reduction rates of litchi branches under the treatments of soil covering and mulching on the 240th day were 51.7% and 38.8%, respectively, and the cumulative mass reduction rates of litchi leaves under the treatments of covering soil and mulching on the 150th day were 55.2% and 42.5%, respectively. The cumulative mass reduction rate of litchi cuttings under the treatment of soil covering was much faster than that under the treatment of mulching. In the whole process of decomposition, the nutrient release rate of litchi branches was showed as K > P > N, and that of litchi leaves as K > N > P. The cumulative release rates of total potassium in litchi branches and leaves under soil covering were more than 90%.【Conclusion】According to the results of this study, we can adopt the management mode of crushing the litchi branches and leaves and mulching the orchard first and then ploughing them into the soil in time. It is propose to reduce the amount of potassium and phosphorus fertilizers in the base fertilizer and supplement nitrogen fertilizer in time.
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