文章摘要
陈 霞,崔一平,彭埃天,宋晓兵,程保平,凌金锋.仁化县贡柑主要病害的调查与检测[J].广东农业科学,2021,48(2):92-99
查看全文    HTML 仁化县贡柑主要病害的调查与检测
Investigation and Detection of Main Diseases on Gonggan in Renhua County
  
DOI:10.16768/j.issn.1004-874X.2021.02.012
中文关键词: 贡柑  柑橘黄龙病  柑橘病毒病  柑橘炭疽病  柑橘褐斑病
英文关键词: Citrus reticulata blanco var. Gonggan  citrus Huanglongbing  citrus virus disease  citrus anthracnose  citrus brown spot disease
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFD0202000,2018YFD0201500);广东省农业科学院科技创新战略专项资金(高水平农科院建设)-人才项目(R2018QD-059);广东省现代农业产业技术体系创新团队项目(2020KJ108,2018LM1077);广东省农业科学院院长基金(201708);广东省第二批省级现代农业产业园项目
作者单位
陈 霞,崔一平,彭埃天,宋晓兵,程保平,凌金锋 广东省农业科学院植物保护研究所 / 广东省植物保护新技术重点实验室广东 广州 510640 
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中文摘要:
      【目的】贡柑生产是广东省韶关市仁化县的支柱性产业之一。近年来,其种植面积逐渐扩大; 2019 年仁化县柑橘产业园入选为广东省第二批省级现代农业产业园。但关于该地区贡柑上主要病害的调查和研 究还未见详细报道。【方法】通过 QPCR(probe)和 RT-PCR 的方法分别对采集的 150 个样品进行贡柑黄龙病 和病毒病(衰退病、碎叶病、裂皮病、黄脉病)的检测;除此之外,在田间调查时有些果园的真菌病害发病较重, 因此采用常规的真菌分离方法并利用真菌的通用引物转录间隔区 ITS 对采集自该地区的病样进行主要病原菌的 分离和分子生物学鉴定。【结果】2019 年 4 月抽检样品的黄龙病平均阳性率为 13.2%;10 月除黄坑镇黄坑村的 失管园外,抽检阳性率均在 17% 以下。值得注意的是,来自黄坑镇黄坑村的失管果园,柑橘黄龙病的阳性检出 率从 2019 年 4 月的 18.2% 上升到 10 月的 87.5%;丹霞街葛布村果园的阳性检出率则从 6.7% 上升到 14.3%。同时, 衰退病毒病的平均抽检阳性率 4 月为 41.2%,10 月为 100%,其他病毒病均未检测到;柑橘溃疡病、柑橘炭疽病 和柑橘褐斑病也有发生,个别果园发生较严重。【结论】仁化县贡柑黄龙病有一定程度的发生,可通过加强以 田间管理为重点的优质高产可持续发展的分类防控等综合防治措施进行防控,尽量减轻黄龙病对柑橘产业的危 害,延长柑橘园的丰产年限和生产寿命。但柑橘衰退病毒病的发病率较高,建议在种苗生产或种植前加强对贡 柑衰退病毒病的检测;同时加强对该地区柑橘炭疽病和柑橘褐斑病等病害的科学防治,合理用药,减少化学农 药用量。
英文摘要:
      【Objective】Gonggan(Citrus reticulata blanco var. Gonggan)production is one of the pillar industries in Renhua County, Shaoguan City, Guangdong Province. In recent years, the planting area of Gonnggan has been scaled up gradually. In 2019, Renhua County Citrus Industrial Park was selected as the one of the second batch provincial modern agricultural industrial parks in Guangdong Province. However, the investigations and researches of major diseases on Gonggan in the region have not been reported in details.【Method】The QPCR(probe)detecting system and(RT— PCR)method were used for the detection of Huanglongbing(HLB)and citrus virus diseases(Citrus tristeza virus, CTV; Citrus tatter leaf virus, CTLV; Citrus exocortis viroid, CEVd; Citrus yellow vein clearing virus, CYVCV)separately on 150 samples from Renhua County. Besides, some of the fungal diseases in the field were more severe, therefore, conventional fungal separation methods and the common primer transcription interval of fungi, ITS, were used to isolate the main pathogens and identify the molecular biology of diseased samples collected from the region. 【Result】The average positive rate of HLB on C. reticulata blanco var. Gonggan samples collected in April 2019 was 13.2% and below 17% in October 2019 except for those in the unsupervised garden on Huangkeng Village, Huangkeng Town. It is worth noting that the positive detection rate of citrus HLB rose from 18.2% in April 2019 to 87.5% in October, while that in the orchards of Gebu Village, Danxia Street increased from 6.7% to 14.3%. Meanwhile, the average positive detection rates of CTV in April 2019 and October 2019 were 41.2% and 100%, respectively. None of other virus diseases were detected. Besides, citrus cancer, citrus anthracnose and citrus brown spot disease also occurred in this region, and they were more serious in some individual orchards.【Conclusion】There is a certain degree of occurrence of citrus HLB in Renhua County. The damages of HLB on citrus industry can be reduced and the abundant year and production life of citrus orchards be extended as much as possible through comprehensive prevention and control measures, such as the classified control of high-quality and high-yield sustainable development with strengthening field management as the focus. However, CTV on C. reticulata blanco var. Gonggan has a high incidence rate, which suggests that the detection of CTV shall be conducted during citrus seedling production or before planting. And it is recommended to strengthen the scientific prevent and control of citrus anthracnose and citrus brown spot disease, rational drug use and reduction in chemical pesticides in this region.
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