文章摘要
潘大建 1,范芝兰 1,邹建运 2.广东野生稻种质资源保护与育种利用[J].广东农业科学,2022,49(9):92-104
查看全文    HTML 广东野生稻种质资源保护与育种利用
Conservation and Breeding Utilization of Wild Rice Germplasm Resources in Guangdong Province
  
DOI:10.16768/j.issn.1004-874X.2022.09.010
中文关键词: 广东  野生稻  异地保存  原地保护  育种利用  优质稻
英文关键词: Guangdong  wild rice  ex situ conservation  in situ conservation  breeding utilization  high-quality rice
基金项目:农 业 农 村 部 物 种 品 种 资 源 保 护 项 目(111821301354052013); 国 家 农 作 物 种 质 资 源 库 项 目(NCGRC-2022-037)
作者单位
潘大建 1,范芝兰 1,邹建运 2 1. 广东省农业科学院水稻研究所 / 广东省水稻育种新技术重点实验室 / 广东省水稻工程实验室 /农业农村部华南优质稻遗传育种重点实验室广东 广州 5106402. 高州市农业科技事务中心 / 高州市农业科学研究所广东 茂名 525200 
摘要点击次数: 57
全文下载次数: 66
中文摘要:
      野生稻是水稻新品种选育的重要基因来源。广东自 1978—1980 年开展首次全国野生稻资源普查搜集以来,在野生稻种质资源保护和利用方面取得显著成效:在广州建立了国家野生稻种质资源圃和广东省水稻种质资源库,目前入圃种植保存野生稻资源 5 188 份、繁殖种子入库保存 4 000 余份,涵盖 20 个野生稻种;在广州和茂名各建立了 1 个普通野生稻原生境保护区;形成了种茎入圃、种子入库保存及原生境保护相结合的野生稻资源保护体系。利用广东野生稻资源直接或间接育成 156 个品种通过国家、省、地品种审定,其中 18 个通过国家品种审定,而且大部分品种米质达到国标、部标或省标优质 3 级或以上等级,说明野生稻资源在优质稻品种培育中发挥着重要作用。但广东野生稻种质资源保护与育种利用工作仍存在以下主要问题:野生稻原生境保护区布局不全面,野生稻自然生存呈现濒危趋势;野生稻资源鉴评设施设备条件不完善,深度鉴评基础薄弱,影响野生稻资源充分利用。建议加大野生稻保护与鉴评经费投入,加强野生稻原生境保护区规划建设和管理,加强野生稻资源优异种质创新、育种新材料创制和相关应用基础研究,以促进野生稻资源保护和育种利用取得更大成效。
英文摘要:
      Wild rice is an important genebank for the breeding of new rice varieties. Since the first national survey and collection of wild rice resources in Guangdong from 1978 to 1980, remarkable achievements have been made in the conservation and utilization of wild rice germplasm resources: the National Germplasm Resources Nursery for Wild Rice and Guangdong Provincial Germplasm Resources Genebank for Rice have been established in Guangzhou. Till now, 5 188 wild rice accessions have been planted and conserved at the nursery, and seeds propagated from more than 4 000 accessions have been conserved in the genebank, covering 20 wild rice species. Two in situ conservation sites for Oryza rufi pogon have been constructed, including one in Guangzhou and the other in Maoming, respectively. A wild rice resource conservation system combining nursery, seed genebank and in situ conservation has been formed. 156 varieties were bred directly or indirectly from Guangdong wild rice germplasm resources and approved by variety approval committees of various levels, including 18 nationally-approved varieties. Moreover, the quality of most of these varieties reached the national standard, ministry standard or provincial standard of high-quality grade 3 or above, indicating that the wild rice germplasm resources play an important role in the cultivation of high-quality rice varieties. However, the following main problems still exist in the conservation, breeding and utilization of wild rice germplasm resources in Guangdong Province: the layout of in situ wild rice conservation sites is incomplete, and the natural survival of wild rice is endangered; the facilities and equipment conditions for wild rice resource evaluation are not perfect, and the in-depth evaluation is insufficient, which affects the full use of wild rice resources. It is suggested to increase the investment in wild rice conservation and evaluation, strengthen the planning, construction and management of wild rice in situ conservation sites, enhance the innovation of excellent germplasm resources of wild rice, the creation of new breeding materials and the basic researches of related applications so as to promote greater achievements in the conservation and breeding utilization of wild rice resources.
  查看/发表评论  下载PDF阅读器

手机扫一扫看