文章摘要
钟旭华 1,刘胜敏 2,胡香玉1,姜志勇 2,吴郁丽 2,李妹娟 1,胡 锐 1,梁洪基 2,王昕钰 1,傅友强 1,梁开明 1,潘俊峰 1,刘彦卓 1.广东鱼塘种稻研究现状与对策[J].广东农业科学,2022,49(9):125-131
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Current Status and Strategies for the Research on Fish Pond Rice Planting in Guangdong
  
DOI:10.16768/j.issn.1004-874X.2022.09.013
中文关键词: 鱼塘种稻  粮食安全  鱼塘养殖  尾水治理  对策
英文关键词: fish-pond rice planting  food security  fish-pond aquaculture  tail water treatment  strategies
基金项目:广东省乡村振兴战略专项省级组织实施项目(粤财农〔2022〕100 号);广东省农业科学院学科团队建设项目(202112TD);广东现代农业产业技术体系水稻产业创新团队项目(2021KJ105)
作者单位
钟旭华 1,刘胜敏 2,胡香玉1,姜志勇 2,吴郁丽 2,李妹娟 1,胡 锐 1,梁洪基 2,王昕钰 1,傅友强 1,梁开明 1,潘俊峰 1,刘彦卓 1 1. 广东省农业科学院水稻研究所 / 广东省水稻育种新技术重点实验室 / 广东省水稻工程实验室 /农业农村部华南优质稻遗传育种重点实验室广东 广州 5106402. 广东省农业技术推广中心广东 广州 510520 
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中文摘要:
      鱼塘种稻是指利用水产养殖的池塘种植水稻的一种农业生产活动。发展鱼塘种稻,可在稳定鱼塘养殖面积的同时扩大水稻种植面积,提升粮食安全,并减少养殖尾水污染。2022 年早季在广州开展的鱼塘种稻试验取得初步成功。供试水稻品种为粤泰油占、黄广油占、美香占 2 号、泰丰优 208、广红 3 号、粤香 430、粤农丝苗、五山丝苗、南晶香占等 9 个,养殖品种为大口黑鲈、澳洲淡水龙虾、鲫鱼和黄颡鱼等 4 个。结果表明,在鱼塘种植条件下,不同水稻品种间的产量差异显著,且与稻田种植差异大,以粤香 430 产量最高,每 667 m2达到 390.8 kg,比产量最低的泰丰优 208 增产 148.6%。4 个养殖品种均表现良好,成活率高,生长速度快,其中以澳洲淡水龙虾表现最佳。目前鱼塘种稻还存在成本偏高、技术标准缺乏、基础研究滞后等问题,亟需从浮板研制、稻渔品种搭配、水稻品种筛选、肥料运筹、有害生物防控、配套农机装备等方面加强协作攻关,同时加强相关基础理论研究。通过技术集成,建立鱼塘种稻绿色高产高效综合技术模式,制定技术标准。随着研究深入和技术熟化,鱼塘种稻将为我国特别是南方地区的粮食安全、农民增收、环境保护和美丽乡村建设做出应有贡献。
英文摘要:
      Fish pond rice planting is an agricultural production activity that uses aquaculture ponds to grow rice. The development of fish pond rice planting technology can keep the aquaculture area, expand the rice planting area, improve food security, and reduce pollution from aquaculture tail water. In the early season of 2022, we conducted a fish pond rice planting experiment in Guangzhou and achieved initial success. The tested rice varieties were Yuetai Youzhan, Huangguang Youzhan, Meixiangzhan No. 2, Taifengyou 208, Guanghong No. 3, Yuexiang 430, Yuenong Simiao, Wushan Simiao, and Nanjing Xiangzhan. The aquaculture varieties were largemouth black bass, Australian freshwater lobster, crucian carp and yellow catfish. The results showed that there was significant difference in grain yield among tested rice varieties under fish pond cultivation and the difference was much greater than that under field cultivation. The yield of Yuexiang 430 was the highest, reaching 390.8 kg/667m2, which was 148.6% higher than that of Taifengyou 208. The four aquaculture varieties all performed well, with high survival rate and fast growth speed, among which the Australian freshwater lobster performed the best. At present, there are still some critical problems such as high cost, lack of technical standards and lagging behind in basic research in fish pond rice planting. Coordinated efforts should be made to enhance low-cost floating bed development, improve rice and fishery matching, screen out more rice varieties, optimize fertilizer management and pest control, manufacture or adapt supporting machinery and equipment, and strengthen relevant theoretical researches. Finally, the green, high-yield and high-efficiency fish pond rice planting procedures and standards should be established through technical integration. With the deepening of research and the maturing of technologies, the fish pond rice planting technology will make increasing contributions to food security, farmers’income increase, environmental protection and beautiful countryside construction in China, especially in the southern regions.
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