文章摘要
邢俊连,彭 歆.水稻耐铝毒害生理和分子机制研究进展[J].广东农业科学,2022,49(9):20-30
查看全文    HTML 水稻耐铝毒害生理和分子机制研究进展
Research Progress in Physiological and Molecular Mechanism of Aluminum Tolerance in Rice
  
DOI:10.16768/j.issn.1004-874X.2022.09.003
中文关键词: 水稻  铝毒害  耐铝遗传  生理机制  分子机制
英文关键词: Oryza sativa L.  aluminum toxicity  genetics of aluminum tolerance  physiological mechanism  molecular mechanism
基金项目:广东省重点领域研发计划项目(2022B0202060002);广东省农业科学院协同创新中心项目(XT202218)
作者单位
邢俊连,彭 歆 广东省农业科学院水稻研究所 / 广东省水稻育种新技术重点实验室 / 广东省水稻工程实验室 /农业农村部华南优质稻遗传育种重点实验室广东 广州 510640 
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中文摘要:
      水稻(Oryza sativa L.)是人类最重要的粮食作物之一。铝是地壳中含量最高的金属元素,酸性土壤中的铝毒害严重限制了水稻的生长和产量。因此,提高酸性土壤上农作物的产量,选育和推广耐铝毒的高产品种,开展作物耐铝机理的研究具有较大的理论与实践意义。与其他农作物相比,水稻对铝胁迫表现出优越的耐受性,这主要是因为水稻对铝毒害具有较强的外部斥铝机制和内部忍耐机制。有机酸、活性氧清除系统、植物激素以及其他离子拮抗作用在水稻对铝毒害的响应中起重要作用。水稻耐铝性是受多基因控制的数量性状,且易受环境影响。随着测序技术的发展,越来越多的水稻耐铝相关 QTL 被鉴定,但目前仅有 20 余个水稻耐铝基因被克隆,它们主要是转录因子、离子转运蛋白、激素输入和输出载体,耐铝相关基因仍有待进一步挖掘和利用。本文概述了水稻耐铝遗传和已报道的耐铝 QTL,进而对水稻耐铝的生理机制和分子机理研究的进展进行综述,最后对水稻耐铝性的研究方向和研究热点进行了讨论和展望。
英文摘要:
      Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important food crops for mankind. Aluminum is the most abundant metal element in the earth’s crust, and its toxicity seriously limits the yield of rice in acidic soil. Therefore, it is of great theoretical and practical significance to improve the yield of crop in acidic soil, breed varieties with strong resistance to aluminum toxicity and carry out research on the mechanism of aluminum tolerance. Compared with other crops, rice possesses superior tolerance to aluminum stress as it has strong external detoxification and internal tolerance mechanisms for aluminum toxicity. The organic acids, active oxygen scavenging system, and other ion antagonism play an important role in response to aluminum toxicity in rice. Aluminum tolerance is a quantitative trait controlled by both multiple genes and environment. With the development of sequencing technology, more and more aluminum-tolerant QTL in rice have been identified. However, only about 20 have been cloned, of which are mainly transcription factors, ion transporters protein, and phytohormones influx carrier and efflux carrier. Aluminum-tolerant genes in rice still need to be discovered and utilized. In this study, the genetics theory and reported QTL of aluminum tolerance in rice were summarized. Furthermore, the progress of the research on physiological and molecular mechanisms for aluminum tolerance in rice was reviewed. Finally, the research directions and hot spots of rice aluminum tolerance were discussed and prospected.
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