文章摘要
李香荣 1,2,何秀英 1,陈 浩 1,陆展华 1,王晓飞 1,王石光 1,方志强 1,巫浩翔 1,刘 维 1.水稻白叶枯病基因的作用机制与育种应用[J].广东农业科学,2022,49(9):31-41
查看全文    HTML 水稻白叶枯病基因的作用机制与育种应用
Mechanism and Breeding Application of Bacterial Blight Gene in Rice
  
DOI:10.16768/j.issn.1004-874X.2022.09.004
中文关键词: 水稻  白叶枯病  Xa23  Xa7  xa5  育种应用
英文关键词: rice  bacterial blight  Xa23  Xa7  xa5  breeding application
基金项目:广州市科技计划项目(20210208041);广州市农村科技特派员项目(20212100075)
作者单位
李香荣 1,2,何秀英 1,陈 浩 1,陆展华 1,王晓飞 1,王石光 1,方志强 1,巫浩翔 1,刘 维 1 1. 广东省农业科学院水稻研究所 / 广东省水稻育种新技术重点实验室 / 广东省水稻工程实验室 /农业农村部华南优质稻遗传育种重点实验室广东 广州 5106402. 南昌大学生命科学技术学院江西 南昌 330000 
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中文摘要:
      水稻是世界上最重要的粮食作物之一,水稻病害是其产量损失的重大威胁,由革兰氏阴性菌稻黄单胞杆菌所引起的白叶枯病是严重影响水稻产量的三大主要病害之一。传统的化学防治方法存在很多弊端,抗白叶枯病水稻品种的培育是世界公认防治该病害最为安全、有效的手段,抗病种质资源鉴定与抗性基因挖掘是抗病品种培育的前提。在自然和人工双重选择压力下,白叶枯病菌不断变异,陆续出现了新型致病变种,主栽品种逐渐失去抗病性,因此发掘和鉴定更多的持久抗病基因显得非常必要。对已克隆的 16 个白叶枯病抗性基因进行简要归类,并从基因的发现、定位、克隆、作用机制等方面对广谱抗白叶枯病且应用较好的 3 个基因Xa23、Xa7 和 xa5 进行详细阐述,对白叶枯病抗性育种方法分子标记辅助选择育种、转基因育种和基因标记育种进行介绍。此外,结合不同白叶枯病基因的自身特性及当前育种利用中存在的问题,展望白叶枯广谱抗病分子育种的未来方向。
英文摘要:
      Rice is one of the most important food crops in the world. Rice disease is a major threat to its yield loss. Bacterial blight caused by the gram-negative bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), is one of the three major diseases that seriously affect rice yield. The traditional chemical control methods have many drawbacks. The cultivation and planting of rice varieties resistant to bacterial blight is recognized worldwide as the most safe and effective means to control the disease. Identification of resistant germplasm resources and discovery of resistant genes are the premise of resistant varieties breeding. Under the pressure of both natural and artificial selections, new pathogenic varieties have emerged one after another due to the constant variation of bacterial blight pathogens, and the main varieties have gradually lost their disease resistance. Therefore, it is necessary to explore and identify more durable disease resistance genes. In the study, 16 bacterial blight resistance genes that have been cloned are briefly classified, and then three genes Xa23, Xa7 and xa5 that are broad-spectrum resistant to bacterial blight with good application are described in detail from the aspects of gene discovery, location, cloning, mechanism of action, and etc. The conventional breeding, molecular marker-assisted selection breeding, transgenic breeding and gene marker breeding for bacterial blight resistance are introduced. In addition, the prospect of molecular breeding for broad-spectrum resistance to bacterial blight is put forward based on the characteristics of different bacterial blight genes and the problems in current breeding and utilization.
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