文章摘要
李文龙 1,2,栾 鑫 1,2,张 强 1,余 宁 1,冯晓敏 1,刘志霞1.基于 CRISPR/Cas9 基因编辑技术的水稻定向改良研究进展[J].广东农业科学,2022,49(9):114-124
查看全文    HTML 基于 CRISPR/Cas9 基因编辑技术的水稻定向改良研究进展
Target Improvement of Rice Based on CRISPR/Cas9 Gene Editing Technology
  
DOI:10.16768/j.issn.1004-874X.2022.09.012
中文关键词: 水稻  CRISPR/Cas9  基因编辑  稻米品质  抗病性  性状改良
英文关键词: rice  CRISPR/Cas9  gene editing  rice quality  disease resistance  trait improvement
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(32001526);广东省基础与应用基础研究基金(2020A1515110067)
作者单位
李文龙 1,2,栾 鑫 1,2,张 强 1,余 宁 1,冯晓敏 1,刘志霞1 1. 广东省农业科学院水稻研究所 / 广东省水稻育种新技术重点实验室 / 广东省水稻工程实验室 /农业农村部华南优质稻遗传育种重点实验室广东 广州 5106402. 华南农业大学农学院广东 广州 510642 
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中文摘要:
      水稻(Oryza sativa L.)是单子叶植物研究的模式作物,同时也是世界上最重要的粮食作物之一。我国是世界上最大的稻米生产国和消费国,水稻在保障粮食安全方面发挥着极其重要的作用。水稻品种的不断改良升级是保障稻米稳产增产的有效途径。以育种家经验为基础的传统育种方式的育种周期长、精准性差、可预见性低,已逐渐不能满足现代育种需求。CRISPR/Cas9 是继锌指核酸酶(ZFN)、转录激活样效应因子核酸酶(TALEN)等技术之后的新一代基因编辑技术,能在不改变受体遗传背景的前提下,精准、定向地改造控制重要性状的功能基因以达到性状快速升级改良的目的,已逐步成为动植物科学研究和作物育种的重要工具。目前CRISPR/Cas9 基因编辑技术已经广泛应用于水稻重要性状的定向改良和种质资源创新研究。综述了 CRISPR/Cas9基因编辑技术的工作原理及其在水稻抗病性、品质、育性、非生物胁迫等方面的研究进展,并对 CRISPR/Cas9技术的发展和未来在水稻育种中的应用进行了展望,为未来 CRISPR/Cas9 基因编辑技术在作物定向改良中的进一步利用提供参考。
英文摘要:
      As a model crop for monocots research, rice is also one of the most important food crops in the world. Rice plays an extremely important role in ensuring food security, since China is the world’s largest producer and consumer of rice. Upgrading and improvement of rice varieties is an effective way to ensure the continuous increase of rice yield. As the heavy reliance on the experience of breeders, the traditional breeding method is time-consuming, poor in precision and low in predictability, which can no longer meet the needs of modern breeding. As a new generation of gene editing technology after zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) and transcription-activating-like effector nuclease (TALEN) technologies, CRISPR/Cas9, which can accurately and directionally modify the functional genes that control important traits without changing the genetic background of the receptor to achieve the rapid upgrading and improvement of traits, has gradually become an important tool for animal and plant scientific research and crop breeding. At present, CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology has been widely used in targeted improvement of important traits and germplasm resource innovation of rice. In the study, the working principle of CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology and its research progress in rice disease resistance, quality, fertility and abiotic stress were reviewed. It will provide a new insight for application prospect of gene editing in rice breeding and provide a reference for the further application of CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology in crop targeted improvement in the future.
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