文章摘要
张 悦 1,2,邹积祥 1,刘 妍 1,2,张 彬 1,黄 庆 1,伍龙梅 1,杨陶陶 1,包晓哲 1,陈青春 2.广东省适宜机插水稻品种筛选与评价体系研究[J].广东农业科学,2022,49(9):151-160
查看全文    HTML 广东省适宜机插水稻品种筛选与评价体系研究
Selection and Evaluation System of Rice Varieties Suitable Mechanical Transplanting in Guangdong Province
  
DOI:10.16768/j.issn.1004-874X.2022.09.016
中文关键词: 水稻  产量  品质  机插适宜性  品种筛选  评价体系
英文关键词: rice  yield  quality  mechanical transplanting suitability  variety screening  evaluation system
基金项目:广东省重点领域研发计划项目(2020B0202090003);广东省农业农村厅项目(广东省适宜机械化作业的水稻品种筛选研究);广东省科技计划项目(2020B1212060047)
作者单位
张 悦 1,2,邹积祥 1,刘 妍 1,2,张 彬 1,黄 庆 1,伍龙梅 1,杨陶陶 1,包晓哲 1,陈青春 2 1. 广东省农业科学院水稻研究所 / 广东省水稻育种新技术重点实验室 / 广东省水稻工程实验室 /农业农村部华南优质稻遗传育种重点实验室广东 广州 5106402. 仲恺农业工程学院农业与生物学院广东 广州 510225 
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中文摘要:
      【目的】探讨不同品种水稻机插模式下的丰产性和稻米品质,筛选适宜广东种植的机插水稻品种并构建适宜机插水稻品种选育评价体系。【方法】选择广东主栽的 14 个水稻品种,以手插为对照,进行两年三季机插水稻试验,以产量和品质为一级指标,糙米率、精米率、整精米率、透明度、垩白粒率、垩白度为二级指标,开展量化评价研究。【结果】与手插相比,机插水稻的产量降低 16.3%,糙米率、精米率、垩白粒率、垩白度则分别提高 1.3、1.4、3.47、0.89 个百分点,透明度也提高 0.1;机插的产量和稻米品质下降或增加幅度存在季节差异,其中两年三季 14 个品种机插的产量较手插平均分别低 11.1%、18.8% 和 17.3%;产量和稻米品质机插适宜性评分显示,14 个品种中粤禾丝苗、粤银软占、合丰丝苗和黄华占等 4 个品种评分最高;产量构成因子与评价指标相关性分析表明,机插适宜性与干物质积累、有效穗数和结实率显著相关,且与干物质积累和结实率的相关性达极显著水平。【结论】与手插相比,机插处理合丰丝苗、粤禾丝苗、粤银软占、黄华占减产幅度较小,广 8 优金占、粤禾丝苗、粤银软占、南晶香占加工外观品质较优;显示粤禾丝苗、粤银软占、合丰丝苗和黄华占机插适宜性评分最高,适合在广东推广应用。研究建立的评价指标体系可供适宜机插水稻品种选育参考。
英文摘要:
      【Objective】The study was carried out to explore the yield potential and rice quality of different rice varieties under mechanical transplanting mode, select suitable rice varieties for mechanical transplanting in Guangdong and construct an evaluation system of rice variety breeding.【Method】Fourteen rice varieties mainly cultivated in Guangdong were selected to carry out experiments of mechanical transplanting rice in three seasons of two years, with manual transplanting rice as control. Quantitative evaluation was carried out with yield and quality as primary indexes and brown rice rate, milled rice rate, head rice rate, transparency, chalky rice rate and chalkiness degree as secondary indexes.【Result】Compared with manual transplanting, the yield of mechanical transplanting decreased by 16.3%, while the brown rice rate, milled rice rate, chalky rice rate and chalkiness degree increased by 1.3, 1.4, 3.47 and 0.89 percentage points, respectively, and the transparency increased by 0.1 percentage point. There were seasonal differences in the decrease or increase of yield and rice quality of mechanical transplanting. The yields of 14 varieties of mechanical transplanting in three seasons of two years were 11.1%, 18.8% and 17.3% lower than those of manual transplanting, respectively. The suitability scores of yields and rice quality showed that Yuehesimiao, Yueyinruanzhan, Hefengsimiao and Huanghuazhan had the highest scores among the 14 varieties. The correlation analysis between yield components and evaluation indexes showed that the suitability of mechanical transplanting was significantly correlated with dry matter accumulation, effective panicles and seed setting rate, and the correlation with dry matter accumulation and seed setting rate was extremely significant.【Conclusion】Compared with manual transplanting, the yield reduction of Hefengsimiao, Yuehesimiao, Yueyinruanzhan and Huanghuazhan was smaller, and the appearance quality of Guang 8 Youjinzhan, Yuehesimiao, Yueyinruanzhan and Nanjingxiangzhan was better. The suitability of mechanical transplanting showed that Yuehesimiao, Yueyinruanzhan, Hefengsimiao and Huanghuazhan had the highest scores and were suitable for promotion and application in Guangdong. The evaluation index system established in this study can be used as a reference for the breeding of rice varieties suitable for mechanical transplanting.
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