文章摘要
张 悦 1, 2,邹积祥 1,张 彬 1,伍龙梅 1,黄 庆 1,陆秀明 1,包晓哲 1,杨陶陶 1,陈青春 2.氮肥和栽植密度对超级稻生长特性和产量的影响[J].广东农业科学,2022,49(9):161-171
查看全文    HTML 氮肥和栽植密度对超级稻生长特性和产量的影响
Impacts of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Planting Density on Growth Characteristics and Yield of Super Rice
  
DOI:10.16768/j.issn.1004-874X.2022.09.017
中文关键词: 水稻  施氮量  密度  产量  氮密互作  减氮增产  群体结构
英文关键词: rice  nitrogen application rate  density  yield  interaction of nitrogen and density  nitrogen reduction and yield increase  pop
基金项目:广东省基础与应用基础研究基金(2019A1515110860,2021A1515012122);广东省农业科学院农业新兴产业学科团队建设项目(202112TD);广东省科技计划项目(2020B1212060047)
作者单位
张 悦 1, 2,邹积祥 1,张 彬 1,伍龙梅 1,黄 庆 1,陆秀明 1,包晓哲 1,杨陶陶 1,陈青春 2 1. 广东省农业科学院水稻研究所 / 广东省水稻育种新技术重点实验室 / 广东省水稻工程实验室 /农业农村部华南优质稻遗传育种重点实验室广东 广州 5106402. 仲恺农业工程学院农业与生物学院广东 广州 510225 
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中文摘要:
      【目的】明确氮肥和栽植密度对水稻生长特性和产量的影响,了解不同品种适宜的栽植密度和氮肥施用量,以期为超级稻高产优质提供理论依据和技术支撑。【方法】以超级稻品种深优 9516 和荣优 225 为试验材料,设置 24×104(D1)、27×104(D2)、30×104 穴 /hm2(D3)3 个栽植密度,以及 0(N0)、120(N1)、150(N2)、180 kg/hm2(N3)4 个施氮量,共 12 个处理。在水稻关键生育期测定株高、叶面积指数、干物质积累量,成熟期测定产量及构成因子。【结果】与 N0 处理相比,株高、叶面积指数(LAI)、干物质积累量随施氮量的增加呈增加趋势,表现为 N3>N2>N1>N0,两个品种在早季、晚季关键生育时期(分蘖期、幼穗分化期、齐穗期)表现一致。与 D1 处理相比,株高、LAI、干物质积累量随密度的增加呈增加趋势,表现为 D3>D2>D1。比较产量发现早稻深优 9516 经 N1D3 处理、荣优 225 经 N3D3 处理,晚稻深优 9516 经 N3D1 处理、荣优 225 经 N2D3 处理产量最高。方差分析结果表明,株高、LAI、干物质积累量、产量及产量构成因子与施氮量、栽植密度呈显著或极显著正相关关系,且氮肥和密度具有互作效应,其中氮密互作对株高、LAI、干物质积累量、有效穗数、产量具有正效应。【结论】结合水稻的生长特性和产量特征,深优 9516 宜采用纯氮施用量 180 kg/hm2 (N3)、密度 27×104 穴 /hm2 (D2)组合,荣优 225 宜采用纯氮施用量 180 kg/hm2 (N3)、密度 30×104 穴 /hm2 (D3) 组合。
英文摘要:
      【Objective】This study was carried out to clarify the effects of nitrogen fertilizer and planting density on rice growth characteristics and yield, and to understand the suitable density treatment and nitrogen fertilizer application rate for different varieties, in order to provide theoretical basis and technical support for high quality and high yield of super rice. 【Method】Super rice varieties Shenyou 9516 and Rongyou 225 were used as experimental materials. Three planting densities 24×104 holes/hm2 (D1), 27×104 holes/hm2 (D2) and 30×104 holes/hm2 (D3) and four nitrogen application rates 0 kg/hm2 (N0), 120 kg/hm2 (N1), 150 kg/hm2 (N2) and 180 kg/hm2 (N3) were set up. The plant height, leaf area index and dry matter accumulation were measured in the key growth period of rice, and the yield and yield components were measured in the mature period.【Result】Compared with N0 treatment, the plant height, leaf area index (LAI) and dry matter accumulation increased with the increment of nitrogen application rate, which showed the trend of N3 > N2 > N1 > N0. The two varieties showed the same performance in the key growth period of early and late seasons (tillering stage, young panicle differentiation stage, full heading stage ). Compared with D1 treatment, plant height, leaf area index and dry matter accumulation increased with the increment of density, presented as D3 > D2 > D1. Comparing the yield, it was found that the yield of Shenyou 9516 treated with N1D3 and Rongyou 225 treated with N3D3 in early rice, Shenyou 9516 treated with N3D1 and Rongyou 225 treated with N2D3 in late rice was the highest. Analysis of variance showed that plant height, leaf area index, dry matter accumulation, yield and yield components were significantly or extremely significantly positively correlated with nitrogen application rate and planting density, and nitrogen fertilizer and density had interaction effects, among which interaction of and nitrogen density had positive effects on plant height, LAI, dry matter accumulation, effective panicles and yield.【Conclusion】Combined with the growth characteristics and yield characteristics of rice, Shenyou 9516 should adapt the combination of pure nitrogen application rate of 180 kg/hm2 (N3) and density of 27×104 holes/hm2 (D2); Rongyou 225 should use the combination of pure nitrogen application rate of 180 kg/hm2 (N3) and density of 30×104 holes/hm2 (D3).
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