文章摘要
孔雷蕾,梁嘉燕,胡晓丹,李梦兴,白 嵩.广东省农业科学院水稻研究所水稻品种播种面积的变化与启示[J].广东农业科学,2022,49(9):172-179
查看全文    HTML 广东省农业科学院水稻研究所水稻品种播种面积的变化与启示
Variation and Enlightenment of Sown Area of Rice Varieties in Rice Research Institute of Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences
  
DOI:10.16768/j.issn.1004-874X.2022.09.018
中文关键词: 广东省  水稻  种植面积  杂交稻  常规稻  育种
英文关键词: Guangdong Province  rice  sown area  hybrid rice  conventional rice  breeding
基金项目:广东省农业科学院水稻研究所优谷计划项目(2022YG03,2022YG04,2022YG07,2021YG09);广东省重点实验室运行费项目(2020B1212060047)
作者单位
孔雷蕾,梁嘉燕,胡晓丹,李梦兴,白 嵩 广东省农业科学院水稻研究所 / 广东省水稻育种新技术重点实验室 / 广东省水稻工程实验室 /农业农村部华南优质稻遗传育种重点实验室广东 广州 510640 
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中文摘要:
      新世纪以来,针对新时期水稻发展战略需求,广东省采取多举措有力推动了我国水稻的优质化发展。广东省农业科学院水稻研究所(简称“广东水稻所”)作为广东省水稻产业的主力军,育成了一大批水稻品种和材料,正推动广东乃至全国各地水稻产业的转型升级,实现我国水稻生产提质增效。以 2003—2020 年广东省水稻播种面积数据为基础,通过结合广东水稻所在此时间阶段的品种推广情况,分析研究广东省水稻播种面积和广东水稻所培育的水稻品种在省内播种面积的变化情况以及两者之间的联系,研究结果为客观认识广东省水稻种植结构变化趋势和水稻产业健康发展提供参考。结果表明,优质高产的水稻品种保证了广东省水稻总产量的稳定,其中广东水稻所选育的高产、优质、多抗、广适的水稻新品种不断涌现,且品种播种面积每年占全省水稻播种面积的 50% 左右,如吉丰优 1002、广 8 优金占、广 8 优 165、美香占 2 号、粤禾丝苗和五山丝苗等拥有较大的播种面积。广东在众多优质稻品种的带动下提高了全省的稻米优质率。水稻育种的创新发展能推动广东乃至全国各地水稻产业的转型升级,确保了我国的口粮安全。在今后育种目标上,围绕保障国家粮食安全和促进农业高质量发展的战略需求,要进一步提升以市场为导向,并利用具有前瞻性的种业科技自主创新和水稻生产能力,推动我国水稻生产的进一步提质增效。
英文摘要:
      Since the new century, based on the development strategies of rice in the new era, Guangdong Province has taken many measures to promote the quality development of rice in China. As the main force of rice industry in Guangdong Province, the Rice Research Institute of Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences (hereinafter called“GDRRI”) has cultivated a large number of rice varieties and materials, which is promoting the transformation and upgrading of the rice industry in Guangdong and even the whole country, with a view to improving the quality and efficiency of rice production in China. Based on the data of rice sown area in Guangdong Province from 2003 to 2020, the changes in rice sown area in Guangdong Province and the sown area of rice varieties cultivated by GDRRI in Guangdong Province and the relationship between them were analyzed and studied by combining the variety promotion of GDRRI in this time period. The results provided references for objectively understanding the variation trend of rice planting structure and the healthy development of rice industry in Guangdong Province. The results showed that the high quality and high yield rice varieties ensured the stability of the total rice output in Guangdong Province. Among them, the new rice varieties with high yield, high quality, multi-resistance and wide adaptability developed by GDRRI kept emerging, and the sown area of the varieties accounted for about 50% of the sown area of rice in Guangdong Province every year. For example, Jifengyou 1002, Guang8youjinzhan, Guang8you165, Meixiangzhan 2, Yuehesimiao and Wushansimiao had a larger sown area. Driven by many high-quality rice varieties, Guangdong has improved the quality rate of rice in the whole province. These results indicate that the innovation and development of rice breeding can promote the transformation and upgrading of the rice industry in Guangdong and even the whole country, and ensure the grain security of China. In terms of breeding objectives in the future, centering on the strategic needs of ensuring national food security and promoting high-quality agricultural development, it is necessary to further improve the quality and efficiency of rice production by further promoting market-oriented and forward-looking independent innovation of seed industry science and technology and rice production capacity.
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