文章摘要
吴 文,曾继吾,朱从一,张瑞敏,黄永敬.广东不同砧木沃柑的比较与引种表现[J].广东农业科学,2021,48(11):32-40
查看全文    HTML 广东不同砧木沃柑的比较与引种表现
Comparison of Different Rootstocks for Orah and Introduction Performance of Orah in Guangdong
  
DOI:10.16768/j.issn.1004-874X.2021.11.005
中文关键词: 沃柑  砧木  产量  果实品质  引种
英文关键词: Orah  rootstock  yield  fruit quality  species introduction
基金项目:广东省现代农业产业技术体系建设项目(2021KJ108);国家现代农业(柑橘)产业技术体系建设专项资金(CARS-26)
作者单位
吴 文,曾继吾,朱从一,张瑞敏,黄永敬  
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中文摘要:
      【目的】研究广东不同砧木沃柑的比较和沃柑的引种表现,以期获得适宜沃柑的砧木及在广东的适栽区域,从而为沃柑高效生产提供依据。【方法】以红橘、香橙和枳作为沃柑的嫁接砧木,对沃柑不同砧穗组合的亲和力、树体生长情况、早结丰产性和果实品质等进行研究,以及在粤东、粤西、粤北等地进行沃柑的引种表现观察,系统了解沃柑在广东的适应性表现。【结果】3种砧木的沃柑均表现出砧穗亲和力强、形成树冠快的优势,其中香橙砧植株生长旺、红橘砧植株生长适中,而枳砧植株生势缓和、矮化性明显。红橘砧、枳砧的沃柑初果期产量较高,分别达8.8、8.5 kg/株,早结、丰产稳产性好,而香橙砧初期产量偏低,仅6.5 kg/株,但结果第2年后砧木对产量影响不明显。单果重以红橘砧最高、平均达150.07 g,香橙砧次之、平均达141.83 g,枳砧最低、仅132.13 g,其中红橘砧与枳砧之间单果重差异显著;果实可溶性固形物、总糖和总酸含量均以枳砧最高,香橙砧最低,其中结果第1~2年枳砧、香橙砧间差异显著,但第3年后砧木差异不明显。沃柑物候期受种植地区影响,在粤东、粤西地区,梢期、花期比粤北地区约早30 d,果实成熟期比粤北地区约早20 d,但果实转色期约晚10 d。广东不同地区种植沃柑均具有早结性丰产性好、果实品质优良的特性,但粤北地区沃柑果实和秋梢易受冻害影响。【结论】红橘砧、香橙砧是值得推广的优良沃柑砧木,而枳砧沃柑丰产后易出现黄化、早衰现象,不建议用作沃柑的嫁接砧木。沃柑在粤北地区因容易受冻害影响而不宜大面积发展种植。
英文摘要:
      【Objective】In order to obtain suitable rootstocks for Orah and suitable planting areas in Guangdong, the comparison of Orah grafted on different rootstocks and introduction performance in Guangdong were studied. The results can provide a basis for highly efficient production of Orah. 【Method】Red tangerine(Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Red tangerine), fragrant citrus(Citrus junos Sieb. Ex Tanaka)and poncirus trifoliata〔Poncirus trifoliate(L.)Raf.〕were taken as grafting rootstocks for Orah. The affinity, tree growth, early fruiting and fruit quality of different rootstock-scion combinations of Orah were studied. And the introduction performance of Orah in eastern, western and northern Guangdong was observed to systematically understand the adaptability of Orah in Guangdong.【Result】The Orah on the three rootstocks showed the advantages of strong scion affinity and rapid crown formation. Among them, the fragrant citrus rootstock plants grew vigorously, the red tangerine rootstock plants grew moderately, while the trifoliate rootstock plants grew moderately and dwarfed obviously. The Orah on red tangerine rootstock and trifoliate orange rootstock had higher yield at early fruiting stage, reaching 8.8 kg/plant and 8.5 kg/plant, respectively, with early fruiting and better high yield stability, while the initial yield of fragrant citrus rootstock was low, only 6.5 kg/plant. However, the effect of rootstock on yield was not obvious after 2 years. The single fruit weight of red tangerine rootstock was the highest, with an average of 150.07 g, followed by that of fragrant citrus rootstock, with an average of 141.83 g and the lowest was found in poncirus trifoliata rootstock, only 132.13 g. The single fruit weight between red tangerine rootstock and poncirus trifoliata rootstock reached a significant difference level. The contents of soluble solids, total sugar and total acid were the highest in trifoliate orange rootstock and the lowest in fragrant citrus rootstock. The differences of soluble solids, total sugar and total acid between trifoliate orange rootstock and fragrant citrus rootstock were significant in the first two years, however, the differences were not obvious after 3 years. The phenological period of Orah was affected by the planting area. In eastern and western Guangdong, the shoot period and flowering period were about 30 days earlier than those in northern Guangdong, and the fruit ripening period was about 20 days earlier than that in northern Guangdong, but the colorchanging period was about 10 days later. The cultivation of Orah in different regions of Guangdong had the characteristics of good early fruiting, high yield and excellent fruit quality, but the fruits and autumn shoots of Orah in northern Guangdong were sensitive to frost.【Conclusion】Red tangerine and fragrant citrus are excellent rootstocks and worthy of promotion, while poncirus trifoliata is prone to yellowing and premature senility after high yield, therefore, it is not recommended to be used as grafting rootstocks for Orah. Orah is not suitable for large-scale cultivation in northern Guangdong due to its vulnerability to freezing injury.
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